Cervical erosion causes
Cervical erosion causes - is a list of mechanisms that encourage the formation of the cervix local wound damage.In fact, true erosion - an open wound (shallow ulcer), no portion of the surface epithelium with a naked subject layer, glands and blood vessels.The reasons for its development are varied and still continue to be studied.
cervix has the form of a hollow tube and which runs inside the cervical canal reported vaginal and uterine cavity.Two physiological narrowing of the cervical canal, called "zevami" are at the bottom end of the vaginal and uterine.Outside the shed is visible at the base of the cervix during normal inspection.
from inside the cervical canal is lined with epithelial cells of cylindrical shape.The surface of the cervix is similar to the vagina, it is covered by squamous epithelium, arranged in several rows.The top row of flat cells is constantly updated, thus protecting against unwanted genital tract infections and inflammation.Inside the
Under the influence of traumatic factors are sometimes formed on the surface of the neck of the wound (ulcer) - a true cervical erosion.Causes of cervical erosion are ambiguous, sometimes even they depend on lifestyle.However, the external characteristics and the cellular structure of all erosions are identical: they are formed only with the participation of ordinary present on the cervix or in its channel cells.
damages of any nature on the surface of the mucous neck injuries like other sites, epiteliziruyutsya via sprawl surrounding elements, that is, of reserve cells stratified squamous epithelium.The healing process of the damaged mucosa occurs regardless of the causes of cervical erosion, epithelialization usually does not take more than two weeks, and in the absence of complications asymptomatic.True erosion due to a short existence and asymptomatic doctors observed infrequently (2%).
sometimes eroded surface on the cervix heals properly: columnar epithelium lining the inside of the cervical canal, creeps on the damaged surface and closes it.Open wound wound, but on the surface of the cervix is a visible defect - the mucous of land formed by the "wrong" cells called false erosion (ectopia).Almost all are diagnosed erosion ectopic columnar epithelium.They are formed in children and nulliparous women, accompany every fifth gynecological disease, diagnosed in half of the patients had undergone childbirth.
Thus, there are two successive stages of a single process: damage to the cervical epithelium (true erosion), and incorrect recovery of its integrity (ectopia).Therefore, the oral use of the term "erosion" in all cases is justified.
exception is congenital cervical erosion.The reasons for the erosion on the neck of the womb are non-traumatic character is always a false erosion rather than an open ulcer.
Perhaps it is hardly possible to find an adult woman, unaware of gynecological pathology, called cervical erosion.However, patients should be aware that under the primary conclusion of the wording "cervical erosion" could mean true and false (ectopic) or congenital erosion.Detail of the pathological process in the cervical mucous is carried out during additional diagnostic procedures.
Causes of cervical erosion
According to the reasons of occurrence of cervical erosion is classified:
- Traumatic cervical erosion.Causes of the wound on the neck: abortion, severe traumatic childbirth, instrumental surgical manipulation.In elderly patients with genital ulcer offset on the cervix causes mechanical damage to the mucosa using the uterine pessary (ring).
infection of the cervix may be the presence of inflammation in the vagina (colpitis, vaginitis) and cervix (endocervicitis, cervicitis).
- specific cervical erosion, whose causes may be far away from the genitals.Diagnosis is very rare in patients with tuberculosis or syphilis.
Genital infections also can trigger damage to the cervix.As a rule, they are revealed and eliminated quickly enough, and the cervix is no time to be damaged.Erosion on the background of genital infections can appear only if they are long-term negative impact on the cervical epithelium.
- Inflammatory cervical erosion, whose causes are always infectious character.Some infections are so aggressive that they can cause the development of local inflammation in the neck, followed by necrosis and a pathological rejection of the infected area.Inflammatory erosion always accompanied by signs of infection in edema, hyperemia, purulent plaque and slight bloody discharge from the damaged vessels.
- Burn erosion.Diagnosed as a result of therapeutic interventions.To eliminate false cervical erosion using several techniques, with a common goal - the destruction of a modified hearth and subsequent recovery should mucous layer over the surface of the former erosion.Most have resorted to electrocautery ("cauterization"), cryoablation ("freezing"), chemical treatment or laser irradiation.Regardless of the method of exposure, subsequent events have a common scenario: a surface layer "wrong" cells die, forming a scab (crust), which covers up to be a slimy layer.Under the scab begin recovery processes, and, as the healing of mucosal crust gradually rejected.If the epithelialization occurs correctly, the scab falls away abruptly, leaving behind a blatant ulcer (real erosion).
- trophic cervical erosion, whose causes lie in violations of a normal diet and circulatory tissues.Often diagnosed in menopausal under hypoestrogenism and atrophic processes in the mucous membranes of the genitals.
- Physiological erosion.For unclear reasons, it appears in healthy women under 25 years of age, and then disappears without a trace, without external interference.
the mechanisms of immune protection significantly affect the course and outcome of therapy erosion.
reasons for the erosion of the cervix in nulliparous
exist among patients view that erosion occur on the cervix only in adult women after childbirth, it is absolutely wrong.In young girls, adolescents and young nulliparous women also found cervical erosion.Causes of erosion "millipara" neck can be divided into:
- Congenital.Congenital cervical erosion is essentially a physiological ectopia columnar epithelium.During the prenatal period occurs the correct formation of the surface epithelium of the cervix and cervical canal and the presence of areas of cylindrical cells beyond the external os is the norm.Gradually, as the "on" in the process of development of estrogens, a transition zone between the cylindrical and flat epithelium rises beyond the external os, so it becomes invisible by visual inspection.Typically, when completed puberty disappears and false congenital cervical erosion.The reasons why it continues to exist on the neck, often have a hormonal nature.
Congenital ectopia diagnosed during his first visit to the gynecologist after the onset of sexual activity.Most often it is accompanied by the presence of symptoms of hormonal dysfunction.Congenital pseudo are not considered as a disease.They are considered a temporary physiological state of the cervical mucus, and not subjected to treatment.
- acquired.A large group of causes of erosion, including internal and external triggers.Among internal causes chronic infectious dominated (including neginekologicheskie) disease, decreased immune protection, hormonal dysfunction.
Early sexual debut (18 years), genital infections, disorderly sex life, mechanical damage to the cervix during abortion - are external causes of cervical erosion.
- Physiological.Sometimes healthy, did not win the 25-year-old girls on the neck line is rendered false cervical erosion, the causes of which can not be established.If such ectopia runs independently without outside interference, it correlated with the physiological process.
Regardless of the origin of the complicated true and false erosion are treated.Unpleasant erosion ability is their recurrence.Reasons for re cervical erosion associated with carrying out the procedures correctly fix the problem, when the neck portion is cylindrical epithelium.Also, recurrent erosion can happen due to not fully cured of the background of infectious process.
Some patients believe that there are psychological reasons for cervical erosion.True erosion - a short-term ulcer on the cervix, and a false erosion refers to its consequences.Their reasons are organic or hormonal nature, but significant part of psycho-emotional disorders in their formation is not set, so the view that there are psychological causes of cervical erosion, false.
reasons for the erosion of the cervix after childbirth
Postnatal true cervical erosion always have a traumatic origin.In the course of the progressive advancement of the fetus through the birth canal cervix, due to the presence of elastic and muscle fibers significantly stretched.When incorrect generic process on the neck appear minor injuries or fractures.
Despite the fact that all generic damaged cervical carefully sutured, they often become the source of postpartum erosion.After three or four days after birth in the neck in the area of damage formed ulcerated surface with signs of acute inflammation.Visual inspection postpartum erosion is a small round ulcers bright red with marked swelling around the edges covered with thick pus-like bloom.At the bottom of the ulcer located the damaged blood vessels, so when you touch a little bleeding erosion.
In a well-working mechanisms of local immune defense on the fifth day after the onset of bottom erosion begins to cleanse itself from the necrotic elements, and when all the damaged surface is "clean" (ie converted into an ordinary wound), starts the process of healing.
Postpartum true erosion diagnosed in the postnatal ward.To prevent secondary infection of the wound surface and to "help" to cope with the trauma of the neck, the area is cleaned of necrotic erosion elements using disinfectant soaked wipes.When the wound is completely clean, start ointment antibacterial applications.Epithelialization completely eroded surface finishes on the 12th day.
When the patient, knowing that they had postpartum erosion, come to the first scheduled scan and hear that the neck has a "erosion", they are surprised and ask, what are the reasons for re-cervical erosion.In fact, in such a situation epithelialization true postpartum erosion occurred correctly: instead of properly stratified epithelium of its "closed" columnar epithelium of the cervical canal, and formed ectopia.
Treatment principles formed after birth pseudo similar to those of all the other patients.