cyst cervical - a benign cavernous formation of the liquid contents of the cervix.The most common violation is the result of normal outflow of the contents of cervical glands due to their mechanical blockage.Cysts of the cervix - a frequent phenomenon, they are diagnosed in one in ten (often giving birth) patients. There are two most popular reasons for their occurrence: blockage excretory ducts of cervical glands and neck on developing endometriosis.
Despite the mistaken belief common among patients, the cervix is not a separate, functioning body apart.It is formed as a result of contraction of the uterus towards vagina and it is lower segment.The neck resembles a hollow tube located inside the cervical canal (endocervical) and two physiological restrictions.From the end of the mother "tube" is narrowed to form internal os, the outer mouth is located at the base of the cervix into the vagina.
protruding into the lumen of the vaginal portion of the cervix is available for
cavity endocervical covers a different type mucous cells: they have a cylindrical shape and are arranged in one row.Cervical mucous forms numerous folds (to the neck can be stretched freely in childbirth), why resembles a spindle.Cylindrical cervical epithelium produces mucous secretion (cervical mucus), due to alkaline it has a strong bactericidal effect, protecting the uterus against potential ascending infection.
Surrounded external os are tubular holes (Nabothian) glands.If, for any reason, they are sealed, glandular secretion accumulated in the outlet ducts, resulting in form retention cysts cervix known as Ovule Nabothi (Nabothian cyst cervix).
number of cysts on the cervix may be different, but multiple cysts of the cervix are detected more frequently.Endocervical multiple cysts on the cervix may be positioned along the entire surface of the cervix.If the cyst is localized on the surface of the cervix around the cervix, sometimes called paracervical cysts cervix.
order not to get lost in the variety of definitions, you should know that Nabothian cyst, cysts paracervical cervical retention cysts of the cervix - equivalent within the meaning of the definition.And if the doctor says "multiple cysts of the cervix," he often implies Nabothian glands.
Any event resulting in a violation of proper operation Nabothian glands and leads to their blockage is the cause of cervical cysts.Sometimes, however, appear on the neck cysts of different origin - endometrioid.They appear as a result of structural defects in cervical mucus, when her column "take root" fragments of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus).
Typically themselves cysts cervix subjective symptoms are not unlike diseases that provoke them.Uncomplicated Nabothian cysts may be present on the cervix symptoms as long as they will not find a doctor by visual inspection, which is not true of endometrial cysts of the cervix.
presence of cysts are diagnosed by visual inspection and confirmed by colposcopy.Deep-seated endocervical cysts on the cervix are not visible from the outside, but well visualized during an ultrasound scan with a vaginal probe.
Nabothian cyst cervical (one or multiple) - absolutely harmless education that does not require special treatment.An exception is made for cysts accompanied cervicitis.Sometimes, if the examination is rendered uncomplicated single Nabothian cyst cervical large (greater than 1 cm), the question of its removal.By manipulation of complex cervical cyst removal does not, it assumes the existence of several equivalent ways of performance, usually, the selection is done by the attending physician.
Causes cervical cysts
source of formation of cysts of the cervix are:
- glandular tissue, named after the scientist who discovered it Nabothian glands (or follicles).Small tubular gland Nabothian form numerous clusters mainly in the lower third of the cervical canal, and their ducts open onto the surface of the cervix.Cervical cancer is constantly produce a large number of physiological mucus in order to maintain the protective properties of the cervical epithelium.If cervical secretions outflow tract obstruction occurs, clogged glands are gradually filled with their own content, to increase and, eventually, turn into fluid-filled cavity - Nabothian cyst.
- Located on the neck portions of endometrial tissue.Endometriosis is gormonalnozavisimyh cervical pathology at which disrupted the normal arrangement of the inner mucosal layer of the uterus.Small clusters of endometrial cells fall on the mucous of the cervix, are implanted and begin to function in a cyclic mode, sometimes they become a source of formation of cysts.
Occlusion glandular ducts can trigger:
- Severe infectious-inflammatory process (including spetsetiologii) in the area of the cervix.Its source may serve as the vagina (vulvo-vaginitis) and cervix (endocervicitis, cervicitis).
trying to fight the infection, cervical cancer begin to function in an intensive mode: they produce more secretions to "wash" the microbes from the surface of the epithelial layer.If the infection manages to "get away from the surface" and infiltrate into the underlying layers, and it affects cancer, discharge becomes more profuse, thick, sometimes becomes purulent.Surviving episodes of infectious aggression, superficial mucosal layer of the cervix is trying to recover, growing "new" cells on the surface of the downstream channels overlap Nabothian glands.As a result, there are multiple cysts cervix.
- Mechanical damage to the tissues of the cervix.The role of cervical injury in the formation of retention cysts confirmed by the fact that they are often diagnosed in giving birth.
In the process of regeneration of injured tissues of the cervix childbirth may occur improper healing of the epithelium, glandular elements overlap when the newly formed cells.Similar structural damage provoked mucous neck injury during an abortion or incorrect manipulation tool.
retention cysts of the cervix often associated with cervical erosion.After an injury to the neck is wound site mucosa, which later healed properly with the formation of pseudo-cervix.Pseudo cervix - a true erosion properly healed (wound).Physiological regeneration of the mucous involves restoring the damaged portion of the cervix due to internal reserves located around the cloth.That is, the damaged portion of multilayered epithelium "grows" in the same epithelium.Improper regeneration wound surface is eroded with columnar epithelium, which is "down" to the damaged area and closes at the same time blocking the ducts and glands Nabothian.
- hormonal dysfunction.Function cervical glands depends on the cyclic hormonal changes.If the amount of hormones produced deviates from the norm, the cervical mucus changes its properties.Too thick and viscous cervical secret badly evacuated from the glands and becomes a source of formation of cysts.
Symptoms and signs of cervical cysts
Nabothian cysts are asymptomatic.Most often they are diagnosed by chance when a woman visits a doctor because of another disease or prophylactically.It should be noted that many experts do not relate neoslozhennye Nabothian cyst pathology.Sometimes they independently opened and emptied, disappeared from the surface of the cervix.
Clinical manifestations Nabothian cyst usually not associated with their presence, and with the process that has provoked their development.For example, in inflammatory changes in the mucous of the vagina and / or cervical retention cysts are accompanied by an increase in the amount of vaginal discharge.There are abundant serous or serous-purulent leucorrhoea, vaginal discomfort and moderate pain contact.
If retention cysts on the cervix are combined with pseudo-women worried whites and small spotting dark.
detect cysts of the cervix is very simple.It is clearly visible during a routine pelvic exam.Nabothian cyst often multiple, located paracervical, and their size rarely exceeds 2 cm. They look like small hemisphere with a thin wall and thick yellowish contents.
to confirm the initial diagnosis, the cervix using a colposcope to learn.Often on the cervix is visualized pseudo or signs of inflammation.
Laboratory examination (smear "flora", bakposev, PCR - research) helps to study the composition of the vaginal microflora and, in case of infection, establish a "culprit" of inflammation.
Ultrasound diagnostics with a vaginal probe is needed to explore the cervical mucous.Sometimes endocervical cysts on the cervix difficult to visually detect because of their high position.
Endometrial cysts sometimes there are no symptoms, especially if the disease process is limited solely to the tissues of the cervix.Educated endometrial tissue, such cysts mimic cyclic menstrual changes: increase in size and filled with blood before the next menstrual period, and after its completion are reduced.Their contents, in contrast to that of the Nabothian cyst periodically emptied, so over time endometrioid cyst becomes a source of inter-menstrual bleeding.Typically, spotting occurs shortly before the month or a week later, and may be accompanied by pain.
On examination, often rendered cavernous formation with reddish brown contents.During colposcopy determined abnormal presence of endometrial tissue in the lining of the cervix.
Endometrial cysts are diagnosed infrequently.For endometriosis of the cervix is more typical of the presence of isolated red-brown lesions, bleeding during menstruation.The disease always involves hormonal reason why diagnostic search involves determining the level of hormones.
Treatment of cervical cysts
Asymptomatic small Nabothian cyst cure is not necessary, but it should monitor the state of the cervix.It's enough to the semi-annual survey with colposcopy control.
Watching women with cervical retention cysts is necessary in any case in time to detect and prevent unwanted changes to the possible consequences of cervical cysts.
most frequent consequences of cervical cysts (occur infrequently):
- distortion of the cervix due to the large number of cysts or due to a significant increase in the size of multiple cysts;
- an abscess at the site sealed Nabothian cancer due to festering its contents;
- cervical infertility when endocervical gland expand, deform or completely cover the cervical cavity;
- threat of premature termination of pregnancy due to the constant irritation of the cervix by numerous cysts (or one large cyst) located in the cervical canal.
Sometimes after an inspection to find single large retention cyst, your doctor may suggest to eliminate it.Cyst puncture, evacuate its contents, and the remainder in its place the destroyed capsule eliminate any convenient way.Cyst removal cervical High resolution is desirable as in the case of infection of the contents, it becomes the source of inflammation.
to make the right choice between the dynamic observation and operative treatment, after studying the causes of cysts on the cervix.If laboratory testing did not reveal the presence of infection or hormonal abnormalities, and during colposcopy are not diagnosed with ectopia of the cervix, do not increase the small cysts may be left under supervision.
Antibiotic therapy is indicated in the case of an infectious inflammation.It carried out in two steps.After preliminary laboratory study selected an effective antibacterial agent, and addressed the issue of the method of administration.Local antimicrobial treatment is effective only when the vaginal infections if used endocervicitis system (tablet) antibiotics.The next stage of therapy with the help of pro - and eubiotics recreated the normal conditions for propagation of normal vaginal microflora.
If the cervix ectopia is present in addition to cysts in the treatment plan includes measures to eliminate it.As a rule, in the treatment of pseudo cysts Nabothian also cured (opened by the tool).
If cervical cysts formed due to hormonal imbalance, held their correction.Typically, after appropriate investigation, the normal hormonal balance is restored.
also need hormone therapy in the treatment of endometriosis of the cervix.Endometriotic lesions on the cervix can be a source of cysts, so the only way to eliminate existing cysts or prevent the development of new treatment of endometriosis is complete.It is the elimination of excessive estrogen production.Mechanical removal of endometrial cysts of the cervix in the absence of hormone treatment is useless.
Typically, during the treatment of the disease, which has become a precipitating factor for the appearance of cysts on the cervix, eliminated the likelihood of relapse.
methods of traditional medicine can not cope with cysts on the cervix.However, they can provide good support act as anti-inflammatory and strengthening therapy: to reduce the symptoms of inflammation, accelerating the healing process of erosion after treatment, to stimulate local immunity.Perhaps the use of medicinal plants in the form of irrigation and baths, oil applications, fitotamponov, vaginal suppositories or ointments.The feasibility of using the methods of traditional medicine should be discussed with your doctor.
spontaneous resorption (opening) of the cervix cysts is possible, but rarely recorded.
detected cysts of the cervix during pregnancy in the vast majority are harmless and do not require special treatment.
Removal of cysts on the cervix
cervical cysts removed without fail if:
- festering cyst contents, and has formed an abscess on the neck;
- cyst looks "atypical", in which case it is removed, to explore and to make sure that this is not a malignancy;
- large cyst combined with infertility;
- cyst interferes assess the condition of the surrounding tissue on the cervix.
If the cyst is located in an accessible place and is larger than 1 cm, it must be removed.The procedure does not apply to complex, on an outpatient basis without prior hospitalization and takes only a few minutes.
Remove the cysts of the cervix is allowed to carry out any day of the cycle, passing the days of menstruation and the first three days in front of her.
There are several methods of surgical removal of cysts of the cervix.Sometimes using a two-step standard approach.
first using a special fine sterile needle puncture the cyst capsule, then empty the cystic cavity and clean it.On the surface of the cervix are no nerve endings, so the procedure is painless.
The next step is to remove the "what's left" to the cyst has not returned to its original place.
remove a cyst cervical possible in several ways:
- classical surgical excision of the cyst with endoscope.