Hypercholesterolemia - is certain pathological syndrome, not a disease in the usual sense of that.Rather, it is a prerequisite to the development of certain diseases.As a result, certain violations (as a result of genetic defects and secondary violations) in the body increases levels of certain substances, which are results of the process of fat metabolism.Putting biological tissues, these substances vyzovayut blockage of blood vessels and various violations in the whole organism.It is the cause of high cholesterol diseases such as atherosclerosis and obesity.
Hypercholesterolemia - is a complex syndrome characterized by not only the pathophysiological disturbances, but also factors such as disruption of the normal diet, psychological problems and endocrine disorders.
In principle, high cholesterol is the "cradle" of the most common diseases of the human population: lesions of the heart and blood vessels.It is important to understand the processes of its genesis and p
In order to understand the pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia must first examine the processes of lipid metabolism.
Under normal circumstances, the human body get different types of fats.The main ones, those who are involved in various energy and anabolic processes are triacylglycerides, cholesterol free and a composite lipids.
Once these fats enter the body, each one undergoes its process of splitting.Triacylglycerides under the action of pancreatic and bile acids disintegrate into smaller components.Similarly absorbed and other lipids: cholesterol absorbed in the free state, it more complex compounds are cleaved by enzymes.
further split and lighter oils are absorbed by enterocytes.These are the cells of the small intestine that are involved in absorbing nutrients from chyme - bolus, which is moving through the digestive tract of humans during the implementation process of digestion.In enterocytes digested fats are transformed into its transport form.They are called chylomicrons.Chylomicra are microscopic fat droplets coated with active proteins and phospholipids.Next chylomicrons through the membrane of enterocytes travel to the lymphatic system, and through it get into the peripheral blood.
you need to say to get yourself in the right authorities for further transformation of chylomicrons can not, for that they need the help of other components.This assistance is provided by the blood lipoproteins - special complexes of blood lipids, proteins connected to.Lipoproteins help chylomicrons do not dissolve in the blood ahead of time, before they reach the relevant authorities.Lipoproteins are different in density and are divided into the following subclasses:
- lipoproteins with very low density (VLDL)
- lipoproteins characterized by low density (LDL)
- Lipoproteins with intermediate density (LPPP)
- Lipoproteins, characterizedHigh-density lipoproteins (HDL)
seemingly very simple classification, but that it occupies a dominant place in the premises of hypercholesterolemia.Each of these lipoprotein engaged transport of certain lipid.Hypercholesterolemia develops due to dysfunction of the lipoprotein, which is to capture and transport of lipids in tissue.
most important role in the transport of chylomicrons play just lipoproteins very low and low density.These lipoproteins are born in the liver cells, and the vessels are sent to the enterocytes, which are associated with chylomicrons, and transported them to the tissues.Basic specification of these lipoproteins - transport of triglycerides.
LDL is the main "traffic" for cholesterol.They spread the cholesterol necessary organs.
lipoproteins, which are characterized by high density in the cells of the liver and small intestine, with a very special function.They are engaged in "pulling" of excess cholesterol from the tissue cells.This is the most important "defenders" of the body that perform "anti-atherogenic" function.
Thus HDL are lipoproteins "defenders" and lipoproteins, low density - a "transport" for the transformed fats.
It is low-density lipoprotein can cause hypercholesterolemia.But this happens only when the low-density lipoprotein "disoriented", that is to lose the function of chylomicrons carry on those in need tissues.It then develops a general condition as hyperlipoproteinemia (hypercholesterolemia is its subspecies).
Hyperlipoproteinemia is characterized by an abnormal increase in the amount of lipids in the blood.Accordingly, hypercholesterolemia, by analogy, is a condition in which blood cholesterol levels will rise.As you guessed, "guilty" in the emergence of hypercholesterolemia are low-density lipoprotein, which will transport the excessive amount of cholesterol to cells and tissues.
reasons why suddenly in a normally functioning body problems like these occur, a few.According to them the disease is divided into primary and secondary hypercholesterolemia hypercholesterolemia.
pathogenesis of hypercholesterolemia
primary hypercholesterolemia develops as a result of violations of the genetic structure.The main reasons:
1. Defects in the protein part of lipoproteins.As a result, low-density lipoprotein can not dock with the tissues and give them chylomicrons cholesterol.
2. Violations of the synthesis of transport enzymes involved in the processes of interaction with chylomicrons lipoproteins.As a result, there is no transport them to the desired segment of the body, and blood accumulates there completely unnecessary cholesterol.
3. Violation of the structure of receptor cells of tissues to lipoproteins.And here comes the following situation: you need to eat and enzymes, and lipoproteins in order, but to connect to the tissue cells, they can not.Referring their words, they can not make the "fit" into a particular tissue.
Secondary hypercholesterolemia - is a consequence of various acquired disorders.These include alcoholism, just above the error in the diet, unhealthy lifestyle, endocrinological disorders, liver and kidney failure and so on. All of them give rise to disruptions in the normal transport of fat from the tissues to the enterocytes.
also highlights the types of hypercholesterolemia, according to the dysfunction of the production and utilization of lipoproteins: a production (increased production of lipoproteins) and Reduction (violation utilization lipoprotein).
Hypercholesterolemia ICD 10
Hypercholesterolemia is so important pathological process that even isolated in separate forms for the international classification of diseases and has its own special code.Cipher pure hypercholesterolemia ICD 10 - E78.0.It refers to the division of diseases in violation of lipoprotein metabolism (common code E78).
main indicators of hypercholesterolemia is the appearance of the body's cholesterol "deposits" - deposits of cholesterol in the tissues.
In the tendons, especially the Achilles, the extensor muscles of the fingers and toes appear uneven Education - xanthomas.They are clusters of cholesterol deposits in the tendons.
For centuries, close to the nasal corner appear yellow and orange spots.It xanthelasma, they are also the cholesteric deposits.
Another extremely interesting manifestation of hypercholesterolemia is the appearance on the periphery of the cornea gray stripes.
hypercholesterolemia manifests itself most often due to its secondary symptoms.That is due to the development of vascular lesions and as a consequence the development of atherosclerosis, heart muscle injury, stroke.
most vivid manifestation of hypercholesterolemia appear during the development of atherosclerosis.A huge range of displays, which feature a variety of vascular damage from cerebral vessels to small vessels of the extremities.
Depending on the injury, and will be different symptoms of hypercholesterolemia.
But I must say that the clinical signs are the result of running stages of hypercholesterolemia.Before the blood cholesterol level becomes critical, pronounced symptoms may be absent.
hypercholesterolemia diagnostic criterion is the study of a special blood lipid profile.It will be determined by the levels of certain lipids: LDL and high-density, triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.That increase in the presence of these four indicators are diagnosed with high cholesterol.
One subspecies is primary hypercholesterolemia familial hypercholesterolemia.It takes the type 2 in the general classification of hereditary hyperlipidemia.It is as a result of genetic disorders can be contacted lipoprotein cholesterol and transfer it.In addition the second factor of this disease is a simultaneous increase in the synthesis of cholesterol the body.
As a consequence, patients with the above symptoms appear cholesterol deposits in the tissues: xanthomas, xanthelasma and senile arc (second name of "corneal arch").
addition, when familial hypercholesterolemia appear early heart attacks "young" myocardial infarction: the average age of occurrence of the disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia is younger than 30 years.This is the only disorder in which there hypercholesterolemia in children.
By the way, there is one interesting fact.If you look closely to the portrait of the Mona Lisa, you can find her signs of familial hypercholesterolemia: xanthomas on hand xanthelasma around the eyes.
treatment of hypercholesterolemia is very important, but in hereditary forms and vital.
Preparations for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia
major role in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia give statins.This is a special class of drugs, which is engaged in lowering cholesterol.They block the enzyme which increases the synthesis of cholesterol.Atorvastatin is usually used.
Healthy Lifestyle for the correction of hypercholesterolemia
also an important element in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia is a lifestyle change: adjusting the quantity and quality of food consumed, appoint athletic exercises.If after 4-6 months, the level of low-density lipoprotein (atherogenic lipids) is not reduced, then start statin treatment.
Besides statins, hypercholesterolemia treated with fibrates (fibric acid derivatives), and bile acid sequestrants (they are hard to break down excess cholesterol).
diet in hypercholesterolemia
But one of the important systems that is used simultaneously with the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, is a special diet.
hypercholesterolemia If you want to remove from the diet of fast food, butter, a variety of meats, egg yolk, offal, very fatty meats, sweets and baking.
recommended to include in the diet of patients with hypercholesterolemia more fruits and vegetables, vegetable oil, cereals and bread, low-fat varieties of fish, low-fat dairy products.You can also eat lean meats.A good example to remember how much meat to patients with hypercholesterolemia should be consumed per day is "an example of a deck of playing cards": a day can consume meat no more than the size of a deck of playing cards.
also a good diet in hypercholesterolemia is a "model plate": take a dessert plate, mentally is divided in half.Half of this dish - it's vegetables and root vegetables, a quarter plate reserved for the side dishes, and only the second quarter of this easy meat or fish.