Diseases of the blood



hemoblastoses photo Hemoblastosis - it growths that develop from cells of hematopoiesis.Hemoblastosis divided into several types: leukemias and gematosarkomy.They are distinguished by the systematic destruction.If leukemia primarily affects the bone marrow, when gematosarkome - limfatichkskie nodes, and bone marrow metastasis already due.In leukemia immature malignant cells are found in the blood, hence the name leukemia.Gematosarkomy divided into lymphoma and tumors nelimfaticheskoy nature.

Classification Leukemia is also carried out at the speed of development of the disease: acute and chronic hematological malignancies.Benign stage of development of malignant Leukemia replaced.

Hemoblastosis are among the five most common malignancies.Half of all malignant tumors in childhood - is hematological malignancies in children.

Causes Leukemia

Leukemia The exact causes are not established yet.The majority of doctors believe that the disease is hereditary, and under unfavorable conditions (expos

ure to radiation, chemicals, viruses, heavy stress), the disease manifests itself.Men are more prone to hematological malignancies.More common in children, young people (especially recently began serving in the army) and the elderly.

can identify the factors contributing to the incidence of hematological malignancies.First, radioactive radiation.There is a high incidence of victims of chemical weapons and the nuclear power plant accident, receiving high doses of X-ray treatment and radiotherapy.The second group of factors - chemicals.Exposure to benzene (if the active and passive smoking), inhalation of volatile organic solvents, varnishes, paints (in production), prolonged use of certain drugs (cytostatics, gold salts, etc.), Chemotherapy.Third, there are cases of ill hematological malignancies as a result of infection with Epstein-Barr virus and T-lymphocytic leukemia virus type-I.It is also increasingly ill patients with hereditary diseases in which the chromosomes are subject to breakage (Down syndrome, Fanconi anemia, Bloom's disease), and nondisjunction of sex chromosomes (Klinefelter syndrome, Turner).

role of genetic factors can confirm the existence of a 'family of leukemia. "If the process is disturbed metabolism in the body, it is also a cause of chromosomal mutations.

Symptoms Leukemia

To classify all the symptoms of Leukemia identify several syndromes.Hyperplastic (increased lymph nodes, liver and spleen).Fixes pain and heaviness in the field.There is an increase in bone marrow, the patient complains of osteoalgiyu.Increasing thoracic lymph nodes compress the superior vena cava, resulting in disrupted blood flow, which is characterized by the appearance of swelling of the neck, arms, face.Becomes visible seal on the skin, gums, throat.

When intoxication syndrome patients feel an inexplicable weakness, tired quickly, the person loses weight, increased sweating, body temperature.

Anemic syndrome is characterized by weakness, decrease efficiency, dizziness, fainting, ringing in the ears, in the eyes of the community.Patients suffer from shortness of breath, heart palpitations, feeling the pain in my heart.

In hemorrhagic syndrome become noticeable subcutaneous bruising, bleeding from the nose.Syndrome infection means attaching various infections resulting in lack of blood leukocytes.

Hemoblastosis may begin acutely as acute respiratory infections, bleeding may initially prevail, onset is slow, or hidden.Hemoblastosis children often hide under the guise of ARI.

can identify and mitigate acute stage (remission) of the disease.Remission release complete and incomplete.Complete remission - this is a normal clinical condition of not less than one month.Thus Myelogram reflects no more than 5% onco-cells.

paraproteinemic hemoblastoses

When paraproteinemic hemoblastoses tumor growth is associated with B lymphocytes.Onset is no different typical features.With the development of the disease as a result of destruction of bone pain appear in the vertebrae, ribs.Due to the lack of production of erythrocytes, granulocytes, platelets begins anemia, infectious complications, hemorrhage.The same occurs renal failure, proteinuria.Increased blood viscosity, impaired microcirculation.

paraproteinemic hematological malignancies occur mainly in the elderly.

By paraproteinemic hematological malignancies include myeloma, leukemia (acute plazmoblastny), solitary plasmacytoma, Valbensterma disease, heavy chain disease, Ig-secreting lymphoma.The disease is characterized by the presence of a malignant neoplasm, which generates an abnormal protein, resulting in immunodeficiency patients develop.

Most often paraproteinemic Leukemia occurs myeloma.The causes of the disease are not fully understood.The tumor is located mainly in the bone marrow.Distributes it can variously abnormal cells evenly among normal cells and hematopoiesis may be pockets of tumor with preservation of normal bone marrow.Because of the abnormal cells osteoclasts begin to destroy the bone tissue.For different shapes characterized by certain features.When diffuse focal forms develop osteoporosis with areas of complete dissolution of bone tissue, osteoporosis is characterized by diffuse form, alopecia is a form of pockets of osteolysis.With the development of the bone thinning disease, it occurs at the end of tumor invasion through.

appearance of the first signs of the disease is characteristic of the third stage of Leukemia, when the mass of the tumor is already more than 1200 grams per square meter.

Leukemia Diagnosis

To diagnose Leukemia collect medical history.The appearance of the patient's weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, pain stabbing character in the chest, right upper quadrant pain, bone pain, increased lymph nodes, there was bleeding.

Analyze the history of life.Find out whether a person is suffering from chronic diseases, hereditary diseases, whether there is dependence on smoking, whether long-term treatment with any drug, whether in hazardous work.

Next - an external examination.The skin may be pale with hemorrhages.The gums are sealed, healthy teeth become loose, there festering sores in the mouth.When probing revealed that the lymph nodes are enlarged.While rapping determined that an enlarged liver and spleen.Measure pulse, he speeded up, and the pressure is reduced.

on a blood test can be seen low red blood cell count, decreased hemoglobin level.In the analysis of urine revealed blood.To identify the related organ damage carried out biochemical analysis of blood.Examine the bone marrow for evaluation of blood formation and classification of hematological malignancies conducted a puncture of the sternum, trepanobiopsy.Examine lymph nodes using a puncture or surgical removal.Cytochemical reaction check, determine the type of tumor cells in the staining of tumor cells with special dyes.Explore bone marrow cells at the chromosomal level.Spend ultrasound examined liver, spleen, kidneys.Make a chest X-ray for evaluation of the status of the lymph nodes, heart, lungs.Perform a lumbar puncture to examine the cerebrospinal fluid.Do MRI, ECG.

To diagnose Leukemia in children is necessary to carefully assess the manifestations of the disease during its development, taking into account age and state of health of the child before the onset of the disease.Timely use the entire arsenal of diagnostic methods (cytological, cytochemical, histological, immunological, cytogenetic, kultoralnuyu, electron microscopic diagnosis).It is also necessary to confirm the diagnosis in a specialized unit, if it was placed earlier.It should start as early as possible to use special methods of investigation to establish the extent of the tumor.Consider all clinical and laboratory parameters for determining the prognosis of the disease.

Leukemia Treatment

treatment should begin as early as possible in the hospital.Hemoblastosis children are treated using the special scheme for children.It is better if the treatment will be carried out in an aseptic room.

Specific treatment depends on the form hemoblastosis.If this is acute leukemia, treatment is carried out in accordance with the type of diseases (or lymphoblastic nelimfoblastnyh).The mainstay of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a program LOP.For the treatment of myeloid leukemia using Cytosar-Anthracycline schemes plus etoposide.Promyelocytic leukemia treated with biological program ATRA plus chemotherapy.In the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia appoint monoclonal antibodies - rituximab, Flyudaru, cytostatics or Cyclophosphamide Sarkolizin with prednisolone and methandrostenolone.The course includes 200-300 mg sarkolizina 10-20 mg per day.10-15 mg per day methandrostenolone.Supportive therapy - Sarkolizin 10 mg in 5-10 days.When kidney failure is replaced Sarkolizin cyclophosphamide 400 mg intravenously or intramuscularly, course - 8-10 of Supportive course - cyclophosphamide 400 mg every 5-10 days.For the treatment of local centers hemoblastosis used radiotherapy.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is treated with Glivec (Imatinib).Traditional treatment for multiple myeloma - a melphalan and prednisolone.New drugs - is bortezomib (Velkeyd) Thalidomide.For the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma himeoluchevye methods used.When hemoblastoses used as Gemzar, Navelbin, taxanes.Chemotherapy treatment is carried out courses.

There is a method that allows you to completely recover from leukemia - a bone marrow transplant from a donor.To avoid rejection, you must choose a donor among relatives.Work is also symptomatic treatment, transfusion of packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma.

hemoblastosis success of therapy depends on early diagnosis and start the right treatment.It is important to patient care.During the course of chemotherapy, the patient should be washed daily with warm water without using sponges.The diet should be boiled vegetables and meat.Do not give solid foods to avoid damage to the oral mucosa.In the treatment of corticosteroid limit the use of salt and carbohydrate foods.Fresh vegetables and fruit are excluded.

During breaks between courses of chemotherapy is necessary to monitor patients, to measure body temperature twice a day, to observe the state of health.

Traditional medicine recommends with good endurance grass, use a decoction of Calamus, blackberry leaves, oat, horsetail, blueberry leaves, apple leaves, dead-nettle in a ratio of 2: 2: 3: 1: 2: 2: 1.He accepted before meals three times a day.Another option is to use a decoction of barberry leaves, birch, angelica drug, lovage, stalks of rye, horsetail in equal proportions.You can also use a decoction of birch leaves, Angelica archangelica, nettle, oat stalks in a ratio of 2: 2: 3: 3

in leukemia also possible to use rubdowns using these herbs alone or in the form of fees: Herbs Boudreau, angelica root of the drug,strawberry forest grass, nettle leaves, green stems couch grass, green stalks of rye, birch leaves, the tops of buckwheat, blackberry leaves, grass Strawberries forest, grass, yarrow, grass nettle white.

Leukemia Treatment is long and requires the efforts of both professionals and patients, but recently due to the use of modern integrated methods in most cases there is complete healing or significant prolongation of life.

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