leukocytosis - a process in which the cellular composition of the blood changes and the white blood cell count increased.Their activity in the peripheral blood increases due to the occurrence of infectious agents.In many cases, leukocytosis is protective response and an important feature in the diagnosis of many diseases.
In adults and children different levels of white blood cells.In adults, the number of white blood cells considered normally 9,0 × 10 / l in children 32.0 × 10 / l, and at age 7 11,0 × 10 / l.Cellular and humoral immunity is formed with the help of white blood cells, thereby forming a protective function.They are able to dissolve damaged tissue and carry gistolicheskuyu task, and in the embryonic period to destroy bookmarks.
absolute leukocytosis is caused by increased production of white blood cells.Patients who are in agonalnalnom conditions involving agonistic leukocytosis.
Local leukocytosis accompanied by a redistribution of white blood cells in certain
intense muscular work is accompanied by a myogenic leukocytosis.
When switching to a vertical position from the horizontal, there orthostatic leukocytosis.
Daylight white blood cells from the depot to the bloodstream is accompanied by redistributive leukocytosis.
With the introduction of adrenaline in the body occurs postadrenalinovy leukocytosis.
With strong emotional shock occurs emotiogenic leukocytosis.
also against the leukocytosis, may reverse the change of blood - leukopenia.Total number of leukocytes decreases.Also significantly reduced granulocytic form, primarily the neutrophils because of radiation, chemical poisoning, viral infections.The yield of leukocytes from the pockets of the bloodstream, slow, accelerated elimination.
The structure of white blood cells include the following enzymes: protease, diastase, lipase, peptidase located in a calm state.Dimensions of leukocytes from 7 to 20 microns.His function they perform outside the borders of the vessels, bloodstream they need for the purpose of movement.Also, they are characterized by amoeboid movement, through which they are able to penetrate the capillary endothelium, heading for the affected areas.Negative hemotoksin - reverse movement of white blood cells.Their average life expectancy can reach 20 years.
main tasks is the formation of white blood cells humoral and cellular immunity, the implementation of the histological features and morphogenesis.
causes of leukocytosis most diverse:
- any appearance of an acute infectious process: the plague, SARS, cholera, influenza provoked a disease as immune cells begin to react;
- In the case of chronic inflammatory diseases of any organ.However, the manifestation of leukocytosis is less pronounced due to the fact that the body gets used instead of fighting;
- In the case of the injured tissue, as blood cells rush to the desired location;
- When you receive food levels will be increased, as the white blood cells will come into circulation from the depot, and will accumulate in the submucosa of the intestine.Despite the fact that the process is physiological, before taking the blood can not eat, otherwise it may mislead the physician;
- If you have an autoimmune disease because the body is constantly fighting.For this reason, do not analyze if there is a clear allergic reaction.There eozofilny leukocytosis, which is accompanied by an accelerated formation or the release into the blood eozofilov.Typically, the disease does not occur in healthy people, but is quite common in the vaccination syndrome Leffler, scarlet fever, dermatosis, worm infestations, angioedema, chlamydia, myeloid leukemia, asthma, pulmonary infiltrates eozofilnyh, pulmonary periarteritis;
- When the physical and psycho-emotional stress, in which white blood cells are also involved;
- When you receive drugs in the body, blood cells react to them as foreign bodies and hard breed;
- Unlike adults, leukocytosis often occurs in children, as to the above factors, it is necessary to take into account that the body in childhood responds faster and faster on a variety of effects.Running, outdoor games, exercise provokes an increase of white blood cells.They perform the metabolic function in newborns, and their high level is very alarming;
- During pregnancy, the white blood cells protect the woman and the child, so a high level is a physiological process.However, perhaps the formation of basophilic leukocytosis, in which increases the formation of basophils.White blood cells also stimulate uterine contractile function and warn of infection;
- Formula leukocyte men stable in the absence of power sports training, intensive muscle work.These factors are the main cause of high leukocytosis;
- Disturbed leykopoez in the bone marrow is associated with physiological effects, and confirms the presence of the disease.
Physiological leukocytosis is caused by the redistribution of blood vessels in different organs of the increased number of white cells.Usually it occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, menstrual period, meals, hot and cold baths, physical work.Also during the day smoking contributes to an increased level of white blood cells.
Pathological leukocytosis occurrence is very dangerous and is associated with diseases such as pyelonephritis, pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis and many others.And also due to diseases affecting the immune system cells and cause inflammation.Exceptions are diseases that occur with leukopenia (rubella, typhoid, viral hepatitis, measles, brucellosis, malaria in the acute phase).High leukocytosis suggests the struggle of the body, otherwise it would indicate an unfavorable outcome.
development of leukocytosis also provoke inflammatory non-microbial etiology, multiple infarcts, which are based on aseptic inflammation, bleeding, burns, malignant tumors.An exception will only metastases in the bone marrow, resulting in impaired blood formation and formed leukopenia.Also, uremia, diabetic coma and remote spleen contribute to the development of pathological forms of the disease.
leukocytosis of natural origin can be divided into exogenous and endogenous.Its causes can be physical (exposure to ionizing radiation on the body), chemical (reduced level of oxygen in the air, alcohol, supplementation, stimulates cell proliferation), biological (elevated levels of histamine and leykopoeza elements of dead viruses, bacteria).Short
leukocytosis may occur during the release of leukocytes in the blood (stress, hypothermia).Reactive leukocytosis may disappear with the cause of his education.
If you have ulcerative colitis, myxedema, chronic myeloid leukemia and pregnancy is quite common basophilic leukocytosis, however, is a rare clinical and hematological syndrome.If you have a chronic form of myeloid leukemia, increased basophils evidence of adverse symptoms.
If you have pertussis, hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, syphilis and other specific infections detected lymphemia.Its mechanism of action is completely unknown.The increased number of lymphocytes, which are determined by leykotsitogramme are untrue, and the relative and associated with leukopenia.
About the beginning of septic process will testify monocytic leukocytosis.Typically, this form is manifested in patients with tuberculosis, brucellosis, malaria, typhus, ovarian cancer and breast cancer, sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, systemic connective tissue diseases, bacterial endocarditis.
There is an increased level of monocytes in patients with agranulocytosis in the recovery stage.Consistently elevated levels of monocytes and monocyte characteristic at myelomonocytic leukemia.In the presence of agranulocytosis, increased monocytes will indicate the beginning of the regeneration of bleeding.
leukocytosis is not an independent disease, and for this reason, the symptoms indicate the disease, which contributed to its development.Children often have no symptoms and therefore need constant monitoring of blood composition.This will detect leukocytosis at an early stage of development.In adults, the disease is usually asymptomatic manifestation.
most dangerous form of leukocytosis, which is quite rare - blood cancer or leukemia.In order not to miss the beginning of development, it is necessary to know the symptoms.The most common are:
- lethargy, fatigue, weakness, malaise, which occurs for no reason;
- enhanced sweating at night, and the body temperature rises;
- often formed bruises, bruises, hemorrhages occur spontaneously;
- dizziness, fainting;
- pain in the abdomen, upper and lower extremities;
- breathing becomes difficult and there is shortness of breath;
- decreased appetite;
- impaired vision;
- inexplicably reduced weight.
If you find more than two above-mentioned symptoms should not slowing down to see a specialist and a blood test.
As a rule, in the event of leukopenia (low white blood cell count), the disease is accompanied by pronounced symptoms.The body begins to weaken gradually reduced immunity.The result is that the body is more vulnerable to various infectious diseases.
Signs that indicate the spread of infectious disease: fatigue, increased body temperature, pulse becomes quickened, there is a fever.Further, there may be inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, gut ulcers appear, swollen glands, spleen and tonsils are enlarged in size.The presence of certain symptoms will depend on which ones are not enough white blood cells.Leukocytosis affects the general condition of the patient.Launched form is fatal.Also, twice as increasing the risk of cancer.
Unfortunately, leukocytosis occurs in children at least once in adults, and there are significant differences by leukocytosis, which is transferred to adult.This is due to the fact that in childhood poorly developed immune system.The presence of the diagnosis indicates an increased level of white blood cells.Leukocytosis in newborns within the normal 9-30h109 / l, and under the age of three years is considered to be the norm 6-17h109 / l., And at the age of 10 - 6-11h109 / l.When blood donation deviations above rules will witness the presence of the disease.
The younger the child, the greater the likelihood of leukocytosis.This is facilitated by the increased exercise, stress, genetic predisposition, poor diet, a change in temperature and many other factors.However, all these factors provoke only a minor change in the body, and after a certain time, all the indicators are normalized.Even the presence of the influenza increases the number of white blood cells.However, if you start early treatment of SARS, then just a few days the number of white blood cells back to normal.
often when it detects leukocytosis identified malignant tumors, diseases of the cardiovascular system.Despite this, the disease itself is not a significant threat, since the child is changing rapidly blood count and white blood cells can easily be normalized.
neonatal big predisposition to leukocytosis due to inflammatory infection.Also, high leukocytosis is evidence of the presence of neoplasms and cardiovascular disease.However, you can find cases where the disease is considered to be a normal physiological process.
Early detection of leukocytes in children will allow to begin treatment at an early stage, reaching maximum effect.Otherwise, it may cause serious consequences.Education pathological form of leukocytosis can be triggered by:
- children's infectious diseases;
- inflammation accompanied with purulent focus;
- scale burns;
- a large blood loss;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system.
leukocytosis are not considered to be a disease.This rather evaluation criterion of the inflammatory process.
Leukocytosis in pregnancy
Immune cells provide reliable protection for the mother and unborn child against various infections and viruses.If there is an increased level of white blood cells - this is evidence of infection.Decreased white blood cell count is an indication of low immunity.The presence of renal disease would indicate high leukocytosis in the vaginal swab and urine analysis.
causes of leukocytosis during pregnancy may be as follows:
- presence of asthma;
- presence of inflammatory process;
- the presence of an allergic reaction;
- large blood loss;
- communicable diseases;
- damaged tissue;
- malignant neoplasms;
- vaginal candidiasis;
- strong emotional shock.
Pregnant, becoming on the account, necessarily give blood to detect the level of white blood cells.Availability leukocytosis in this period is a physiological phenomenon, however, an increased level (greater than 20) will already indicate the presence of infection, usually urinary tract infection (vaginitis, thrush, cystitis, colpitis).The partner can also be a source of infection.
With increased leukocytosis urine becomes darker color, it becomes cloudy with a loss of mucous loose sediment.The normal white blood cell count is considered to be up to three units.In some cases, leukocytosis can develop within a few hours, which is a potent threat to the life of the child.
too high levels of white blood cells - it is always a sign of the presence of bacterial, viral infection, purulent process, internal bleeding.However, we must remember that there is always a risk of hyperleukocytosis.In the rapid development of the disease, sometimes within hours, which will progress.
leukocytosis is a threat to the woman and the fetus up to the congenital pathology, chronic diseases can even cause miscarriage.The presence of leukocytes in the smear will indicate an increased number of pus cells.It is possible, absence of symptoms, including discharge.The most common causes of are:
- The presence of genital infections most commonly cause leukocytosis.The following symptoms: itching, discharge, redness of the external genitalia.The absence of sexual contact in recent years can testify that there is no infection.
- The presence of kidney stones.Small stones passing urine way injure him, causing inflammation.
- The presence of dysbiosis.If pathological bacteria or present in large numbers, it is a violation of the bacterial composition of the urinary tract.Leukocytosis is the result of inflammation.
- When cervical erosion and leukocytosis cystitis is a concomitant phenomenon of inflammation in these organs.Pus in this case would flow in the vagina and will appear in the smear.
Physiological leukocytosis may occur when: severe stress;reception hot tubs;3 hours after eating;during the second trimester of pregnancy.