Osteoporosis - treatment, prevention
Osteoporosis (brittle bones) - a progressive systemic disease of the skeletal system, which interferes with the structure and reduced bone density.The disease is manifested degradation of the structure of bone tissue and loss of bone mass, which leads to increased fragility bone structures, thereby increasing the risk of fracture of the wrist, hip and spine (often).Vertebral fractures disrupt the stability of the spinal column and biomechanics of the spine.Most of all, this disease affects women, as confirmed by the following observations - after 70 years, 30% of women experienced at least one fracture in a vertebra
Osteoporosis begins its development after the age of thirty years and can affect anyone,regardless of gender, but most often the disease develops in postmenopausal women (loss of bone mass in women is associated with age-related decrease in estrogen levels).Because bone loss, bone becomes brittle and weak, thereby incr
- old age.During this period, the body begins poorly absorb calcium
- Long-term adherence to various diets, especially if from the daily diet are excluded milk products
- Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) with removal of one or both of the ovary
- excessive exercise, due to which the exhausted productsfemale sex hormones (marathon, inadequate strength exercises and so forth.)
- Abuse of alcohol and heavy smoking
- Lack of calcium in the diet
- gestation period.In case of lack of calcium in the diet of the mother, the fetus begins to take away from the parent bone
Osteoporosis is divided into primary and secondary.In most cases there is primary osteoporosis (women are six times more likely than men)
Primary osteoporosis (first type) is a rapidly progressive disease leading to rapid loss of trabecular bone (spongy inner part of the bone).Normally, this bone in a fairly large amount is present in the limbs and in the vertebrae, so the loss of trabecular bone tissue is considerably increased risk of fracture of the wrist, and vertebrae.
primary osteoporosis (second type) occurs twice as often in women, usually after seventy years.Its development is associated with increased activity of the parathyroid glands and malabsorption of vitamin D and calcium.In this type of osteoporosis bone decreases sufficiently slowly and observed as to the inner part of the bone, and on the outside.Because the rate of bone loss is insignificant, then the consequences are not so rapid as in the first type of the disease.The most common fractures of the second type of osteoporosis - hip fractures
Secondary oteoporoz develops in the case of the human body processes that change the bone turnover (a decrease of its mass).The causes of secondary osteoporosis include the following violations of the hormonal metabolism: increased activity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism), diabetes, hyperparathyroidism, hypercortisolism (develops due to long-term use of corticosteroids, or as a consequence of chronic diseases).In addition, the causes of secondary osteoporosis may include: leukemia (leukemia), myeloma, metastatic lesion of bone, thalassemia
main danger of the clinical picture is that the onset of osteoporosis oligosymptomatic or completely asymptomatic, cleverly masqueradingarthritic joints or spinal osteochondrosis.Often the disease is diagnosed after a fracture that can occur with minimal load or picked up enough low gravity.
at an early stage to note the presence of the disease is difficult enough, but there are some signs that can help in the diagnosis.This pain in the bones when weather conditions change, the destruction of teeth, brittle hair and nails, in violation of posture.Wrist bones of the hands, spine and femoral neck, are the most susceptible to the disease.
main symptoms of osteoporosis - this compression fractures of the femoral head and the vertebral bodies.As a result of compression fractures of the vertebrae can occur pain in the back, which over time disappear spontaneously.In cases repeatedly vertebral fractures and pain are often permanent.Sometimes, in severe cases of osteoporosis, even such minor movement, as the slope of the torso forward, can cause a compression fracture of the spine (more common in older women).As a result of such fractures develop kyphosis (pronounced slope of the spine forward).
When any pain in the back, especially elderly women, it is imperative to seek medical help for consultation and possible timely appointment of treatment or prevention of osteoporosis
Diagnosis of osteoporosis
To date, the most informativemethod used for the diagnosis of this disease is an X-ray densitometry.It is assigned only if there is a suspicion of osteoporosis, and the sooner densitometry will be made, the more effective treatment will be.However, in order to prescribe adequate proper treatment of osteoporosis, one of the X-ray densitometry enough.It carried out a general analysis of urine and blood, as well as a full range of biochemical (level of protein, calcium, phosphate) blood tests.Older people, in order to avoid multiple myeloma, conducted X-ray bone.If you suspect a fracture, all patients received X-rays.Computed tomography is indicated for suspected presence of metastatic lesions
Osteoporosis is a difficult issue that seriously engaged endocrinologists, neurologists, immunologists and rheumatologists.It is necessary to slow bone loss, to prevent occurrence of fractures, to achieve stabilization of bone metabolism, reduce pain, to expand motor activity.For the treatment of the underlying disease, which led to osteoporosis, applies etiologic therapy and for pain - symptomatic therapy.In addition, used pathogenetic (pharmacotherapy) osteoporosis therapy.
used in the treatment of osteoporosis drugs :
- Drugs that stimulate bone formation: bioflavonoids, vitamin D3;salt of strontium, calcium and fluoride
- Preparations for the suppression of bone resorption: bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid, risedronate, ibandronate, alendronate, pamidronate), calcitonin, natural estrogens
Unfortunately, to date, to cure finally osteoporosis is impossible, but with the help of influencethe absorption and the subsequent absorption of calcium drugs can significantly improve the condition of the skeletal system.
Exercise therapy for osteoporosis includes walking, giving a load on the bone.
Diet osteoporosis is proper selection of food.They should contain vitamin D and calcium are: various dairy products, nuts, cabbage, greens, fish, broccoli.In addition, vitamin D in sufficient quantities is in fish, egg yolk, and fish oils
Prevention of osteoporosis
first priority the prevention of osteoporosis is eating enough calcium, which is necessary concentration is in such foods as low-fat dairy productsmeat salmon, cauliflower, cheese, broccoli.At the same time, it is necessary to significantly reduce the use of products containing phosphorus, which is: sweet carbonated drinks, red meat and so on. It is necessary to significantly limit the use of caffeine and alcohol.The recommended daily dose of calcium and 60 years - 1000 mg after age 65 - 1500mg.
In case of failure or inability of the usual preventive measures of the disease, is shown receiving funds drug prevention.In menopausal (climacteric) for the prevention of osteoporosis estrogens used (in the form of subcutaneous implant or orally), feasible as well as regular exercise.Everyone, without exception, the women who turned forty years abroad, it is mandatory to check the functioning of the thyroid gland and, if necessary, carry out timely and appropriate treatment.