Diseases of the joints and spine



kyphosis photo kyphosis - a C-shaped curvature of congenital or acquired upper spine beyond its normal bend, leading to the appearance of a hump.Most often there is kyphosis of the thoracic spine, while the cases of lumbar and cervical kyphosis are extremely rare.Kyphosis is divided into physiological and pathological.

Physiological sacral and thoracic kyphosis are formed in early childhood, whereas in adults curves of the spine are fixed.In elderly and senile age marked increase in thoracic kyphosis.

transition in pathological physiological kyphosis occurs in cases when its value is greater than normal or it is manifested in atypical location (for example, in the lumbar spine).Besides abnormal kyphosis divided into fixed and unfixed (functional).Floating kyphosis are due to uncompensated defect of vision (myopia), the sluggish posture and so on. In the case of targeted treatment of these defects often go unnoticed.Various diseases of the musculoskeletal system lead to more resistant strains.Fixe

d kyphosis, unlike functional in the horizontal position of the patient does not diminish or disappear.

Pathologic kyphosis is divided into: congenital, caused by a neuromuscular disease, osteohondropaticheskie, kyphosis in systemic diseases of the skeleton, and after an inflammatory disease

Kyphosis - Causes of

Causes of kyphosis of the spine are different, on this basis, allocateThe following types of kyphosis:

→ Stoop (postural kyphosis of the thoracic) - this is the most mild form of thoracic kyphosis, which is most often caused by poor posture at a young age

→ degenerative kyphosis - a more severe form of the disease, the cause of which is considered to be a progressive low back painbackbone, which decreases the intervertebral gap dysfunction and ligamentous apparatus.If degenerative kyphosis accompanies pinched nerves of the spinal cord pathology is called compression

kyphosis kyphosis of the spine is acquired, congenital, due vozniknuvshey conducted surgery (postoperative kyphosis), or injury (posttraumatic kyphosis).Congenital kyphosis of the spine occurs both because of heredity, and because of the anomalies of the vertebrae.

addition, note the following causes of kyphosis: back muscle weakness, paralysis, back occurring in the elderly age-related changes, tuberculosis, rickets.

clinical degree of kyphosis:

→ Gipokifoz - angle of curvature of the order of 15 °

→ Normokifoz - angle of curvature from 15 to 50 °

→ hyperkyphosis - angle of curvature greater than 50 °

kyphosis is among the dangerous and sometimes deadlydangerous diseases.From the side it seems that the stooped man is nothing special, and even more dangerous.Unfortunately, this is not so.The human spine is the spinal cord, from which virtually all parts of the human body and departments deviate nerve roots (beams).Kyphosis leads to the infringement, which is often expressed by progressive weakness in the legs, up to the absolute impossibility of independent movement.In addition, the openings of processes of the cervical vertebrae are supplying blood to the cerebellum, occipital lobe and brain stem vertebral arteries, clamping them in severe kyphosis leads to a violation of cerebral circulation and the development of later stroke, which often ends in death of the patient Symptoms of kyphosis photo

Kyphosis - symptoms

kyphosis of the thoracic spine appears posteriorly convex with an inclination angle of more than 45˚ and is detected by visual inspection of the patient.If there is a bulge at least this value, the deviation is recognized and diagnosed with normal - kyphosis of the thoracic spine is not placed.

thoracic kyphosis exhibit characteristic painful muscle spasms of the back, which are observed in the kyphotic curvature.Sometimes this type of kyphosis can be added symptoms of kyphosis of the thoracic spine (numbness and weakness in the extremities).When complicated form of thoracic kyphosis observed violations of the heart, breathing and digestion.

In the absence of treatment, progressive kyphosis of serious stoop becomes bent, which is not only dramatically change the appearance of man, but also significantly reduces the chest, while the diaphragm descends downward mobility of the ribs decreases, and breathing movements very difficult.Due to these anatomical changes of the chest is a violation of the respiratory function of the lungs, which in turn often leads to the development of stagnation in the lungs (difficulty breathing, cyanosis appears fingertips and lips), and respiratory failure.

man who developed hump relatively short lived, as his heart changes its original position and is much below their capacity, and his weakened lungs are constantly exposed to various inflammatory processes.Because of all of the above patient dies from cardiovascular and respiratory failure.

When kyphosis in the initial stage, formed deformation allows the patient to have a rather full life.In humans, there are recurrent pain in the neck and back, as well as weakness in the lower extremities to the violation of their skin sensitivity.In case of further progression of the spinal curvature, added to the above restriction of the respiratory symptoms of lung function, incontinence of urine and feces, as well as disorders of the sexual sphere.

Types of pathological kyphosis: types of kyphosis photo

- Congenital kyphosis.It is caused by a genetic mutation, and inherited defect of the vertebral body (anterior)

- Postural kyphosis.This type of spinal curvature develops as a result of poor posture ("rounded back") and occurs most often in teenagers, flowing together with excessive forward bending (lumbar hyperlordosis)

- posttraumatic kyphosis.Developed as a result of injuries to the spine vertebral compression fracture and compression of the spinal cord

- Secondary kyphosis.The disorder develops in the presence of any infection (poliomyelitis, tuberculous spondylitis) or systemic (ankylosing spondylitis, rickets, cerebral palsy, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma) disease

- Senile (degenerative) kyphosis.This type is caused by degenerative changes in the curvature of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs, which are accompanied by so-called "subsidence of the spine", as well as the weakening of its ligamentous apparatus

- Scheuermann's disease Mau.The cause of this disease to date have not been established.It is known that the disease in most cases occurs in adolescents in the age range from thirteen to sixteen years as thinning of the front of the vertebral bodies about the middle of the spinal column, which leads to the characteristic leaned forward in the thoracic

Diagnosis of the disease

Even kyphosis in the early stages can be easily suspected visually.All that is needed, so the patient is asked to lean forward and take a close look from the side of the spine, because it is in such a position of the body, whether there is any distortion upper back can be easily visually identified.However, this method can only be considered preliminary diagnosis.Finally, the degree of kyphosis is set exclusively by means of computer tomography and radiography.In addition, to determine the status of muscle reflexes and absence or presence of disorders of skin sensitivity is shown holding a neurological examination.Pulmonary function tests performed by spirometry.To detect pathological changes in nerve roots and spinal cord shows MRI

Kyphosis - treatment

Mild forms, as well as postural kyphosis bad amenable to conservative treatment manual therapy and exercise therapy, and physiotherapy if kyphosis is obligatory in any case, that is, allows us to reduce the pain to a minimum, correct posture and strengthen the muscles of the back.

In case of severe pain shows the use of different groups of analgesics, most NSAIDs (ketorol and so on.) That allow you to not only get rid of intrusive pain, but also reduce the inflammatory lesion.These drugs are shown in accordance with a doctor's prescription to take on a daily basis, not in moments of pain attacks.manual therapy

The most promoted in recent treatments of spinal disorders is manual therapy.When this type of treatment of kyphosis can give positive results only in the initial stage, and only if the treatment will be carried out properly by trained specialist.In case the patient will be in the hands of an amateur, there is a great risk of a displacement of the vertebrae, causing severe complications sets.Manual treatment on a problematic part of the spine is held with the mandatory intervals of two to three days.

When hyperkyphosis which developed the only method of treatment is surgery, during which there is a defect elimination and stabilization of the spine with special titanium plates, rods and screws that are secured by a special technique on the vertebral bodies.After a certain time, all foreign objects are removed from the spine.Reached after the surgery the effect lasts about five to six years

Prevention of kyphosis

Preventive measures of kyphosis include simple rules aimed at addressing the causes of the disease and include:

- Regular physical activity (for adults- fitness for the elderly - morning gymnastics)

- Children and adolescents with a decrease in visual acuity necessarily recommend wearing contact lenses or glasses

- If a person predominantly sedentary work, to maintain normal muscle tone, it is recommended that at least 1 timeh. to get up and perform simple gymnastic exercises

- If a child stoops due to the tightness of its high growth, you need to spend with him explanatory conversation, or ask for it to the child psychologist

- It is important to know that the height of your chair and table must necessarily corsetmatch the growth of man.If while working, reading, or eating to lean - requires a mandatory change of furniture

At the initial stage of formation of kyphosis for the prevention of disease progression is shown wearing a special corset which ensures the correct position of the chin, shoulders and back.The duration of daily wear is determined by your doctor especially individually, based on the symptoms and the degree of kyphosis.

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