Asthma - severe relapsing inflammatory disease of the human respiratory system, manifested by sudden attacks of breathlessness, feeling short of breath, recurrent episodes of whistling wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath.Asthma occurs in both children and adults and is among the most common modern diseases (from 4 to 10% of the population)
It was found that the vast majority of reported cases asthma developsdue to hypersensitivity to various stimuli.
Bronchial asthma can be directly connected both to environmental factors (frequent respiratory infections and various allergic factors) and with a hereditary predisposition.
asthma attacks can be caused by the following factors, it is:
- Irritants in the environment: tobacco smoke, perfumes, sprays, exhaust
- Bacterial and viral infections: sinusitis, colds, bronchitis, flu
-Allergens: spores, pollen, mites, dust, animal dander, foods
- Medications: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicy
- Intense physical activity (often in cold rooms)
- Different stressful situations: anxiety, fear,etc.
Equally important in the development of asthma plays climatic factors: altitude, soil and climate.It was noted that the movement of air masses, low cloud or cyclones threefold increased likelihood of developing asthma, compared to being in a normal climate conditions.Also worth noting is that the emergence of asthma in almost 90% of cases helps clay soil
While bronchial asthma is a common disease, its symptoms in different people may differ.In most patients, the first symptoms are manifested at an early age (before 10 years) and 30% of patients under 40 years.
age range and incidence of asthma:
- up to ten years - about 35%
- From ten to twenty years - about 15%
- from twenty to forty years - about 10%
- forty tofifty years - about 10%
- From fifty to sixty years - about 7%
- After sixty years - about 3%
clinical picture of asthma is characterized by symptoms such as coughing and breathing problems in the form of shortness of breath.These symptoms occur after direct contact with the allergen, which is of great importance in the diagnosis.In addition, there is a seasonal variation in symptoms and diagnosed with relatives asthma or other atopic diseases.
In the case of a combination with rhinitis, severe symptoms of asthma may be seen as a permanent seasonal exacerbations, and appear only at certain times of the year.Some patients with seasonal exacerbations caused by an increase in air levels of certain aeroallergens (pollen of ragweed, birch, various herbs and so on.).Besides the above symptoms may develop after exercise (asthma physical exertion), or by contact with various human nonspecific substances (sharp odors, fumes, smoke).
asthma attack is the most common symptom of asthma.During the attack, the patient sits in a forced acceptance position in which breathing is carried out with the help of auxiliary muscles abdominals, shoulders and chest.In protracted attacks often occur significant pain in the lower part of the chest, which is due to the hard work of the diaphragm.The offensive attack is often preceded by an aura attack, which appears rhinitis, cough, sneezing, hives.Directly the asthma attack may be accompanied by cough with a small amount of vitreous sputum.Immediately after the tremors cough increases the number of wheezing (as you exhale and inspiratory).As sputum discharge decreased wheezing and breathing becomes more rigid.During periods of exacerbation notes tachycardia, drowsiness, cyanosis, difficulty communicating.Due to the increase in lung volume swells the chest.In between bouts of patients may be completely absent any signs of the disease.
There are cases of asthma, when the clinical picture is limited to cough.This type of asthma is called cough.Most often it is common in children, the symptoms are usually observed at night.Cough variant asthma it is mandatory to be differentiated from eosinophilic bronchitis.
Some patients only precipitating factor in the development of bronchial asthma attacks is a physical activity (asthma physical exertion).Most often the attack develops after a short period of time (5-10 minutes) after the termination of exercise.During physical activity the most attacks are extremely rare.Sometimes patients say prolonged cough, independently passing for 35 - 45 minutes.In most cases, attacks are provoked by a run, the determining factor in their development appears inhaled the cold, dry air
The diagnosis of asthma is set based on the following key points:
- The history of the disease, characteristic of the disease complaints (drycough, shortness of breath)
- presence of concomitant clinical manifestations (forced body position expiratory character dyspnea)
- study of respiratory function in the presence of obstructive changes
- clinical examination (wheezing in the lungs, shortness of breath and heart rate)
- Available in bronchial secretions or sputum eosinophils
- Positive results allergoproby
for the treatment of asthma is shown holding a medical emergency actions aimed at restoring the disturbed normal bronchial obstruction.Patients need to know the following points:
- phlegm and expectorant drugs are a very important component of the treatment of bronchial asthma.They can be used either as a tablet means (acetylcysteine ambrogeksal bromhexine), and in the form of infusions and decoctions of herbs
- If a patient is diagnosed atopic asthma associated with allergy to house dust, pollen and fungal spores.very good results are achieved thanks to the so-called specific desensitization, which blocks the abnormal immunological reactions.This type of treatment involves injecting the patient's body in microscopic doses of the allergen in a specific pattern.After a course of injections in many patients asthma attacks completely can disappear for several years
- if confirmed "aspirin" asthma is shown receiving a specially developed scheme miniscule doses of aspirin, so often reduced hypersensitivity to the drug and improves the flow of the disease
additionmedication, there are many non-drug treatments for asthma, they include a variety of physical treatments (ultraviolet irradiation, Amplipuls, the impact of ultrasound inductothermy, electrophoresis), UV or laser irradiation of blood, hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as such innovative techniques as the plazmatsitoferez, plasmapheresis and hemosorbtion.
addition to all of the above on an outpatient basis are widely used special breathing techniques, reflexology and psychotherapy.