Angioedema (angioedema, angioedema, trofonevrotichesky edema, angioneurotic edema) - suddenly developing severe allergic reaction of the body, characterized by massive swelling of the mucous membranes, skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue.Usually angioedema develops in the neck, upper torso, face, back of the feet and / or hands.Much less angioedema affects the internal organs, joints and meninges.This pathological manifestations can develop absolutely any human being, but most often occurs in young women and children
Angioedema - Causes
are two types of angioedema: pseudoallergic and allergic.
Development pseudoallergic angioe
Allergic angioedema, as in other matters, and other allergic reactions, is caused by the body's immune response to the penetration of the specific allergen.Very often allergic angioedema accompanies diseases such as hay fever, hives, asthma and food allergies.
Angioedema in infants and toddlers is very rare.Contributing factors in the development of pathological conditions may be diseases of the thyroid gland, liver, stomach, parasitic and autoimmune diseases and blood diseases.Quite often gets angioedema relapsing chronic course.Often, the exact cause of angioedema and can not install
Angioedema - Symptoms
disease always begins suddenly.In a few minutes (less time) in different areas of the face and mucous membranes seen the development of pronounced edema.Typical symptoms of angioedema - local swelling of the oral mucosa (tonsils, soft palate, tongue), eyelids, lips, scrotum, urogenital area, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract.Is rarely swelling accompanied by pain and have a sense of tension fabrics.The skin in the pale edema, pruritus is usually absent.In the area of edema observed ellastichnogo palpation voltage tissue, holes in the pressure remains itself is painless swelling.
main localization angioedema - the throat, cheeks, eyelids, lower lip.The most life-threatening form of angioedema is considered to swelling of the trachea, larynx and pharynx, were observed in 25% of patients with this pathology.Such patients develop aphonia, cyanosis of the tongue is observed, there is difficulty in breathing, there is anxiety, possible loss of consciousness.On examination there is swelling of the mucous throat palatine arches and soft palate, pharynx lumen narrowing.If the swelling spread to the trachea or larynx may be fatal as a result of asphyxiation.
If angioedema affects the internal organs, symptoms manifested by vomiting, diarrhea, sharp pains in the abdomen.With the defeat of the meninges and brain are developing neurological disorders (hemiplegia, aphasia, epileptiform seizures).
Angioedema in children manifests itself circumscribed edematous lesions on the mucous membranes and skin.
Angioedema disappears after a few hours or days, but often periodically recur
Possible complications of angioedema
Perhaps most threatening complication can be considered as laryngeal edema with increasing symptoms of acute respiratory failure, which include progressive shortness of breath, barkingcough and hoarseness.
In the case of edema lesions of the urogenital system manifested symptoms of acute cystitis.Besides swelling can lead to acute urinary retention.
swelling gastrointestinal mucosa can be simulated acute abdominal pathology may cause dyspeptic disorders, increased intestinal motility.Also, can often have symptoms of peritonitis and acute abdominal pain.
If localization swelling on the face, the process may involve the meninges with the emergence of meningeal signs and symptoms of Meniere's syndrome (vomiting, nausea, dizziness).In the absence of timely qualified emergency?angioedema this localization often entails death.
angioedema Diagnostics is performed based on the presence of characteristic visual symptoms of edema and reactions to epinephrine.It is very important in the process of diagnosing determine the root cause, which became the catalyst for the development of edema, which are commonly used skin allergological tests and laboratory blood tests.You must also be sure to make a differential diagnosis with the syndrome of Melkersson-Rosenthal, erysipelas, collateral edema when periostitis and lymphostasis
Angioedema - first aid
• swelling of the mucous of the respiratory tract (apnea) - epinephrine injection
• With a decrease in blood pressure shown subcutaneous injection of 0.1 to 0.5 r-ra adrenaline
• desensitizing treatment.Is taking antihistamines: intramuscular injection of 2 ml 2% suprastin orally Telfast, Aerius, Zyrtec, Claritin
• Hormone therapy: corticosteroids (intravenous from 8 to 12 mg deksazona intramuscularly 60 to 90 mg of prednisolone)
• Preparations inhibitorsproteases
• Detoxification Therapy (enterosorption, hemosorption)
• Mandatory hospitalization in allergy
phased treatment of angioedema
• The immediate therapeutic step is required to eliminate direct contact with the allergen
• Withto improve the tone of the sympathetic nervous system drugs prescribed calcium efidrin, ascorbic acid
• To reduce the level of histamine administered Tavegil, Suprastin, diphenhydramine.Parasympathetic activity decrease using atropine
• To reduce the permeability of blood vessels is carried vitamin (Ascorutin etc.)
• Displaying a course of treatment of gamma globulin and B vitamins, as well as desensitizing therapy with prednisolone, cortisone and ATKG
• For the treatment of hereditaryangioedema used drugs that enhance the body's production of the missing C-1 inhibitor
Prevention angioedema involves strict adherence to a diet in which there are no foods that can cause allergic reactions.In case of involuntary exposure to allergens is necessary to take timely assigned physician antihistamines.