Drug allergies - caused by various components of the drugs allergic reaction.Today allergies to medicines is a critical issue not only allergic people, but also for the doctors treating them, sincenamely they have a direct responsibility for the appointment of each drug.Most people take the drugs on their own, relying on television advertising obtained through consultation on the treatment of certain diseases.The greatest danger, and are just such drugs, and they are released from pharmacies without a prescription.In almost 90% of people exposed to this allergic reactions, drug allergies cause non-prescription antibiotics (cefuroxime, penicillin), sulfa drugs (Biseptol, Septrin, trimethoprim) or regular aspirin.
Drug allergies in children side effect of certain drug is not.In fact, this reaction, which is caused by a specific individual intolerance of the drug.Allergic reaction does not depend on the amount taken into the body of the drug, becausefor the development of an al
Drug allergy, in most cases develops only after repeated exposure to the provoking its development component of the drug, while the first contact with the drug immunity is undergoing a period of sensitization
reasons for drug allergy
Different people drug allergy is different.In one case, it is purely an occupational disease that occurs in otherwise healthy people as a result of prolonged contact with drugs and is often the cause of partial or total disability.The most common occupational drug allergy occurs in dealing with production of medical drugs people and health care workers.In another case, the aircraft performs a complication of therapeutic treatment of a particular disease (often allergic nature), and it considerably aggravates its course and can lead to disability as a patient and lead to death.
According to statistical data center for the study of adverse events after administration of drugs, it was found that more than 70% of reported side effect of medicines it is allergy.According to the data of the majority of countries involved in the research, drug allergy occurs in more than 10% of patients, and each year these figures will only increase.
LA Most often seen in women, in proportion to men 2: 1.Residents of rural areas are allergic to drugs suffer much less.Most often, the aircraft seen in people who have overcome thirty years age limit.The most common allergic response occurs after taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sulfonamides, antibiotics, as well as after vaccination against tetanus.In addition, we note that the same drug can develop the aircraft again, even after many years since the first case.
most at risk of drug allergies are exposed to long-term patients are taking medications and employees of the pharmaceutical industry.Often the aircraft observed in genetically susceptible individuals, as well as in patients with allergic and fungal diseases.
immunoglobulins, vaccines and drugs have serum protein in nature, thus being allergens due to the fact that they can independently cause the production of antibodies, and then to walk with them in the appropriate response.The vast majority of existing medications are so-called haptens, iesubstances which acquire their antigenic properties only after the connection with the proteins of serum or tissues.As a result of such a reaction the formation of antibodies, which when re-ingested antigen form an antibody-antigen complex, which triggers an allergic reaction.Drug allergy, in principle, can cause any drugs, and unfortunately even the ones that have to deal with it!
In some cases, after taking certain drugs can develop an allergic reaction to the false, by its symptoms are very similar to the symptoms of anaphylactic shock.Despite the similarity of the symptoms of drug allergy, with false sensitization of an allergic reaction to this medicine does not occur, and as a consequence of antibody-antigen reaction is not developed.In this case, a non-specific release of mediators such as histamine and histamine-like substances.
Drug pseudoallergy unlike true LA may develop after the first dose, and at a sufficiently slow his introduction reaction occurs extremely rarely, becauseconcentration in blood injectate remains below a critical threshold, without increasing the rate of release of histamine.When drug pseudoallergy conducted pre allergotesty for the future administration of the drug are negative.
provocateur histamine release may be blood substitutes (dextran), drugs, alkaloids (papaverine), opiates, Desferal, polymyxin B, no-spa and Prospect. An indirect sign pseudoallergic reaction is the lack of aggravated allergic history.A favorable background for the development of drug pseudoallergy are chronic infections, diseases of the digestive tract, dystonia, liver disease, diabetes.Also, the development pseudoallergy can provoke excessive uncontrolled introduction of Medicine
Drug allergies - symptoms
the treatment of the following medicines may develop complications and reactions:
• Side effects (abdominal pain, headache and so on.).Enumeration of all possible side effects listed in the guide of each drug.For example - after taking antihistamines may experience dizziness and drowsiness
• Toxic reactions.These symptoms occur in the case of over dosage of the drug.The most common toxic effects occur in patients with diseases of the kidney and liver, as in these cases, the excess doses of medication occurs in the liver and kidney damage due to the deterioration of excretion of drugs
• Allergic reactions
• withdrawal reaction.This reaction occurs in the event of termination of this long held to treatment with certain medications
• Spillovers.These include fungal lesions of the mucous membranes, disruption of normal intestinal flora, etc.
As occurrence, drug allergies are divided into two types:
• immediately.There is almost immediately after the introduction or receiving provoking substances.For immediate allergic reactions include swelling, hives and anaphylactic shock.In most cases these reactions occur after administration of penicillin and its analogues.Due to the fact that the antibiotics penicillin similar chemical structure, when a drug allergy to one of them, there may be reactions to other drugs in this group.Immediately after the introduction of penicillin may cause a rash, which appears high above the surface of the skin with red spots.Unfortunately, the allergic response of the immune system may not be limited to a rash and after some time can develop this much more serious reactions like anaphylactic shock
• Slow.There is a few days and as a consequence are often the exact cause of an allergic reaction can not be established.Manifested delayed drug allergy changes in the composition of blood, joint pain, hives, fever.In addition, a few days after taking the drug can cause such reactions as purpura, allergic vasculitis, allergic hepatitis, allergic nephritis, lymphadenopathy, astralgiya, arthritis and serum sickness
Drug allergies - treatment
treatment of drug allergy should firststarting with a complete cessation of drugs cause allergies.If at this time the patient takes a number of medications, should be abolished them all, until the direct detection of the "culprit" Allergy.
Often patients drug allergy observed manifestations of food allergy, so that it is a hypoallergenic diet with restriction of spices, smoked, sour, sweet and salty foods, as well as carbohydrates.In some cases, a food allergy elimination diet involves the appointment, which provides for the use in large enough quantities of tea and water.
If the patient is mild allergies, have much better he begins to feel after the abolition of provoking drug.If the allergy is accompanied by hives and angioedema, shows treatment with antihistamines (diphenhydramine, suprastin, tavegil), however, be sure to take into account their tolerance in the past.If after treatment antihistamine drug allergy symptoms do not subside, shows the use of parenteral injection of corticosteroids.
When choosing an antihistamine should take into account the properties of all drugs of this group.Perfectly matched drug allergies besides high antiallergic activity must have a minimum of side effects when taking.Optimally meet these requirements such as an antihistamine Aerius, Telfast and cetirizine.
When toxic and allergic reactions are the drugs of choice, such as the latest antihistamines fexofenadine and desloratadine.If the severity of the drug allergy accompanied by the development of lesions of the internal organs, dermatitis and vasculitis, a good effect is achieved by use of oral corticosteroids.In the case of lesions of the internal organs, taking into account the likelihood of adverse reactions and allergoanamneza applied syndromic treatment.
In case of severe allergic reactions (Lyell's syndrome), treatment consists of high doses of corticosteroids applied when the injections carried out every 5 hours.In such cases, treatment necessarily carried out in a specialized intensive care, because such patients have severe lesions of the skin and internal organs.In addition, the therapy of such conditions involves carrying out activities aimed at the restoration of acid-base and electrolyte balance, hemodynamics and general detoxification of the body.
often in conjunction with toxic skin lesions, observed the development of infection, so antibiotics further shown, the optimal choice of a suitable antibiotic is a very difficult task, as the possible development of cross-allergic reactions.
the purpose of detoxification and in the case of a large loss of fluid shows the introduction of plasma-solutions.However, one should bear in mind that these solutions also may develop an allergic reaction or pseudoallergic.
In the case of extensive skin lesions, patients are treated in an absolutely sterile conditions like burn patients.The affected skin is treated with oil of sea buckthorn and wild rose, preservatives, p-rum green fodder or blueprints.In the event of damage to the mucous membranes, the lesion is treated protivoozhogovoy emulsion karotolina, hydrogen peroxide.When stomatitis used water extracts of aniline dyes, chamomile extracts and others.