pollen allergies - caused by pollen allergy group of diseases characterized by acute inflammatory manifestations on the part of the mucous membranes and skin. the disease is characterized by clearly repeating season, which coincides with the time of flowering of certain allergenic plants.The severity and nature of the clinical manifestations to pollen depends on each individual organism sensitivity to pollen allergens, as well as the presence of concomitant diseases and allergic reactions.
pollen allergy (hay fever) first became widely known in 1914, when almost the entire population of France located in the south of the village, which developed as a result of sharply mucosal edema, covered by this dread of the unknown disease.In our country, the scientists first encountered widespread manifestations of pollen allergy in the mid-sixties in the Kuban region, after blossom brought from America ragweed.Today in Russia alone pollen allergies affect approximately 15% of the popula
pollen allergy is caused exclusively by pollen, which have allergenic properties and belong to producing a truly enormous amount of pollen shallow fly widespread wind pollinated plants.Depending on the period of flowering allergenic plants have pollen allergy incidence observed three peaks: spring, summer, autumn, although some patients with certain clinical manifestations of this type of allergy can be observed during all three periods, beginning with spring and ending in late autumn.
• The first peak period of pollen allergy - April and May.During this period, dominated by an allergy to pollen, birch, ash, oak, maple, poplar and walnut
• The second period of the pollen allergic reactions account for the time period from June to August.During these months actively begin to bud cereals: bluegrass, rye, wheat grass, fire, corn and so on. Also in June, there is an increased concentration in the air poplar fluff, so at this time appeared allergic reactions often associated with it.In contrast to acute reaction to pollen, allergic to poplar fluff has a less pronounced clinical
• The third period allergy to pollen - fall, when the air is dominated by increased concentration of pollen of various weeds, among which the most allergenic activity have quinoa, hemp,dandelion and of course
ragweed pollen allergies are not officially classified, so it can be subdivided depending on the severity and localization of the pathological process.According to this release:
• Allergic skin disease
• Allergic eye disease
• Allergic diseases of upper and lower respiratory tract
• Combined allergic reactions
• rarely encountered clinical manifestations of pollen etiology
most common manifestations of allergy to pollen: contact (allergic) dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, allergic conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinosinusitis / rhinitis.These clinical manifestations of allergy to pollen may occur in combination or alone.Less frequently, due to exposure to pollen allergens can be observed changes in the digestive, cardiovascular, urinary and nervous systems.
allergy-causing pollen must have the following properties:
• Volatility and ease, iethe ability to spread over considerable distances
• High allergenicity / antigenicity, ie,belong to the genus widespread in this area of plant
• pollen grain diameter must be not more than 35 microns.Thanks to such microscopic size pollen able to create in the air a very high concentration and to ensure its smooth entry into the airways
Composition pollen can contain up to ten antigenic components, which are present not only directly to the pollen grains, but also in leaves and stems.The most pronounced allergenic properties have exine (outer shell of pollen grains).It has been found that the mucous membranes is a water-soluble fraction of pollen allergy and contact dermatitis - fat-soluble (particularly in case of contact with skin allergen).
Usually, the cause of pollen allergy are wind-pollinated plants, since the concentration in the air of pollen of these plants is much higher than the pollen of plants pollinated by insects.
usually wind-pollinated pollen emission is observed in the early morning, but the greatest concentration in the air, it reaches the day and / or in the early evening, which was caused by higher air circulation in these hours.In the cities, the concentration of pollen in the dry weather, much higher than in wet and rainy
symptoms of pollen allergy
Symptoms of the disease mostly associated with damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract.The most typical clinical symptoms of this disease is a syndrome rinokonyunktivitny combining allergic symptoms of the upper respiratory tract, nasal mucosa and eyes.
pollen allergies are almost always in the beginning of the flow begins with the typical signs of conjunctivitis: burning and itchy eyes, a feeling of a foreign body in the eye, tearing and photophobia, conjunctivitis slightly red, swollen eyelids.
At the same time there are characteristic signs of conjunctivitis rhinitis itching at the junction of the nasal cavity to the throat, characteristic long bouts of sneezing, which is accompanied by abundant mucus secretions from the nose, pain in the frontal and maxillary sinuses.
addition to violations of respiratory function in patients experiencing a crash in the ears and pain in the parotid region.The ear symptoms are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting passing in.
As soon as the pollen from the air disappears, all the above symptoms begin to subside, and gradually eroding.
the severity of the disease depends on the degree of sensitivity of a particular person to inhaled allergens, especially on the amount of inhaled pollen.With increasing amount falling on the eyes and mucous airway pollen, symptoms become more pronounced.
addition, there is a clear connection allergy to pollen allergic diseases such as asthma, food allergies, allergies to dust and allergies to medications.
Diagnostics pollen allergy based on external examination of the patient, careful of his survey and the results of skin allergy tests
pollen allergies - treatment
If a person there is increased sensitivity to pollen, cure it today unfortunatelyalmost impossible.That is why the most effective and probably the only one until treatment is to avoid contact with the allergen.The current treatment of allergy to pollen is to conduct allergen specific immunotherapy, which is administered subcutaneously for several weeks more high doses of allergen provoking.In response to a gradual introduction, the body begins to produce an allergen to this kind of "antidote".Specific immunotherapy should be done well in advance, before the start of flowering plants provoke allergies.However, be aware that if there is the slightest sign of deterioration, this kind of treatment is absolutely contraindicated.Immunotherapy requires enormous patience from the patient as to achieve consistent results, it should be carried out for at least three years.That is why the most common treatment for grass pollen allergy is a medical treatment vasoconstrictor (galazolin, oxymetazoline, Naphthyzinum) and antihistamines (loratadine, tavegil, diazolin, suprastin) drugs, dosage and mode of which is to appoint only qualified physician.For the treatment of symptoms of conjunctivitis and to prevent possible further development of purulent process, the eyes Bury p-rum Albucidum
Prevention of allergies to pollen
most effective way to prevent pollen allergy is the complete elimination of exposure to provoking pollen.The ideal option is to temporarily leaving the area of flowering plants provoking allergy development.If this is not possible, at the time of flowering of quarantine plant should follow these guidelines:
• Refrain from traveling out of the city and exploring the forests and parks
• On the open doors and windows in the office and apartment
• In calm weatherin the evening, and after the rain should ventilate the room, with an open door or window must be to hang soaked in water gauze or sheet
• In the hot, dry windy days is better to refrain from going outside, because in such conditions, the concentration of pollen in the air is highest.If this happened, then return immediately change clothes
• At least twice a day should take a shower
• After washing is strictly forbidden to dry things outdoors (balcony or outside), as they will settle pollen
• The apartment should be carried out daily wet cleaning
These recommendations should be carried out regardless of whether (at work, at home, at a party), where it is prone to allergies to pollen people.