drugs from allergies
Treatment of allergic diseases is conducted in almost the same scheme and is mandatory isolation of the patient from contact with the allergen-provoking substance;in conducting specific immunotherapy, which helps teach the body not show excessive response to an allergen entering;in a non-specific therapy, which involves taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and antihistamines
Antihistamines - This drug is the primary effect of which is aimed at blocking the H1-histamine receptors.Also, there are drugs which block histamine H2-receptors, which are often used as anti-ulcer drugs, sincethey reduce secretion.
With numerous repetition has been found that histamine, affecting receptors in the skin, eyes and respiratory system, causing allergy symptoms are antihistamines or prevent cropped.Antihistamines prevent histamine caused by substances and histamine bronchospasm and have local anesthetic, sedative, antiserotoninovym,
On the establishment of antihistamine drugs are divided into I, II and III generation.The drugs I generation - sedatives, drugs II generation - non-sedating, drugs III generation - active metabolites without cardiotoxic and sedation
Antihistamines I generation
The first-generation reversible associated with H1-receptors, resulting in theirIt must be administered frequently in rather high doses.The main pharmacological properties of these drugs: hypnotics, sedatives, holinoliticheskoe effect and decreased muscle tone.Also, these drugs can potentiate the effect of alcohol.Protivogistaminny effect they have for about five hours (drug Tavegil - about eight hours).
sedative effect is due to the fact that virtually all the drugs I generation fat soluble, easy to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, binding to H1 receptors in the brain.In the case of a combination with psychotropic drugs and alcohol, the sedative effect is enhanced.In some cases, there may be agitation.It is because of the sedative effect of most drugs of the first generation may not be used during activities requiring increased attention.Without exception, I generation drugs enhance the effects of alcohol, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics, hypnotics and sedatives.
anticholinergic action of these drugs is atropine reaction manifested impaired vision, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention, dryness in the nose, throat and mouth.Rhinitis, these properties could be useful in asthma and they can only increase airway obstruction, exacerbation cause of BPH and glaucoma.
Thanks holinoliticheskogo, drugs have antiseasick and antiemetic effects, which significantly reduces the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Most antihistamines characteristic kokainopodobnoe (local anesthetic) activity.
In the case of long-term use, antihistamine activity may decrease, so I recommended drugs every two to three weeks.After taking the drug therapeutic effect is observed almost immediately, but its effect is enough briefly.
few antihistamines I generation, because of their hypnotic and sedative effect, are part used in motion sickness, migraine and cold combination preparations.
have antihistamines I generation as a wide range of side effects that often allergic diseases on their destination refuse, in some European countries their implementation in general is prohibited.
Below we present the most commonly used antihistamines I generation:
• diphenhydramine .Pseudoallergic reduces the severity of allergic reactions and has high antihistamine activity.Because of its effect holinoliticheskogo has antiemetic and antitussive effect, while often causing urinary retention and dryness of mucous membranes.In addition, diphenhydramine has a strong hypnotic and sedative effect and is often used as a regular sleeping pills.In case you are hypersensitive to lidocaine and / or novocaine, diphenhydramine is an alternative in terms of local anesthetic effect.However, this drug is characterized by unpredictable effects on the central nervous system and quite a wide range of side effects
• Diazolin .In this drug sedative effect is much weaker than that of diphenhydramine, while it often causes the excitation of the central nervous system and the side effects such as confusion mental and motor reactions, somnolence, dizziness, impaired urination, irritation of the digestive tract.Some researchers argue that diazolin has a toxic effect on nerve cells
• Suprastin .The most used sedative antihistamine with a mild antispasmodic and peripheral anticholinergic action, as well as a significant antihistamine activity.Suprastin most effectively proved itself in the treatment of diseases such as year-round and / or seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, angioedema, and urticaria.Because the active drug in blood serum does not accumulate, it is possible to use for a long period without danger of overdose.The therapeutic effect occurs fast enough, but does not last long, so as to increase its duration is often shown its combination with non-sedating H1 reception blockers
• Tavegil .By its action similar to dimedrolom highly effective antihistamine with high anticholinergic activity.Sometimes, as an additional means appointed by injection at angioedema and anaphylactic shock.According to the testimony may be used to treat allergic reactions and pseudoallergic.However, sometimes there is an allergy and he Tavegil
• Peritol .In addition to antihistamines, this drug has considerable antiserotoninovym action greatly increases the appetite and is often used in migraine
• Fenkarol.Despite the fact that this drug antihistamine activity is less than that of diphenhydramine, it has a low sedative properties.In addition to the reduction of histamine in tissues Fenkarol blocks H1 receptors.This drug is a good replacement in the case of addiction to other antihistamines
• pipolfen .It is used to potentiate anesthesia and as an antiemetic.It has a pronounced effect on the central nervous system
antihistamines II generation
Antihistamines Allergy II generation, unlike their predecessors, do not possess anticholinergic and sedative effects, do not reduce the physical and mental activity, notfor penetrate the blood brain barrier, not adsorbed to food in the digestive tract, have rapidly advancing therapeutic effect.However, despite their obvious advantage over drug allergy the past generation, drugs II generation have a cardiotoxic effect of varying degrees, so taking them require continuous ambulatory monitoring of cardiac activity.These drugs are prohibited for use for older people and patients with any disturbances in the cardiovascular system.
effect of these drugs lasts longer and is faster.In the case of drugs in recommended therapeutic dose, sedation is minimized.Mild drowsiness may be observed only in increasing the sensitivity of the people, but the withdrawal of the drug is not required.Chronic administration of antihistamine activity is not reduced.
Side cardiotoxicity is caused by blocking potassium channels in the preparation of the heart muscle.The risk of cardiotoxicity increases considerably in the case of a combination of antihistamines with antidepressants (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine), macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin) and antifungals (itraconazole, ketoconazole).
most used antihistamines II generation:
• Treks (terfenadine) .This drug allergy is the first drug of this generation.Despite the fact that the CNS had no inhibitory effect, it has a high ability to provoke the development of fatal arrhythmias and significant cardiotoxic
• Gistalong (Astemizole) .Most long-acting (about 20 days) of the drug in this group.Gistalong not reacted with alcohol, it has a sedative effect is almost completely absent.Most effectively established in the treatment of chronic allergic diseases.When the flow of the acute process its application is considered inappropriate.The main contraindication is a serious risk of (sometimes fatal) cardiac arrhythmias
• Sempreks (acrivastine) .The therapeutic effect of the application of this drug quite short-lived, however, achieved very quickly.It is a drug with the least severe anticholinergic and sedative effects at high antihistamine activity
• Fenistil (Dimetenden) .By its composition is closest to the drug allergies the past generation, however, is markedly different from them is much less pronounced sedation, longer duration of action and a higher antiallergic activity.Practiced in the form of a gel for topical application
• Claritin (loratadine) .The most purchased drug II generation.Because of the greater strength of binding to the H1-receptors, it has antihistaminic activity higher than that of terfenadine and astemizole.The drug does not potentiate the effect of alcohol, no sedation, cardiotoxic not have with other drugs hardly reacted.Claritin can take the children after a year and drivers
metabolites (Antihistamines III generation)
New drugs against allergies third generation do not have cardiotoxic and sedative effects, and therefore allowed to use the people involved in production, requiringattention.
most used medications from the new generation III allergy:
• Telfast (fexofenadine) .The drug does not interact with other drugs, has no effect on psychomotor activity, no sedative effect.Among all antihistamines, Telfast can be considered the most effective and safest possible
• Tsetrin, Zyrtec .In the body the drug is practically not metabolized, its output speed is directly dependent on renal function.Well-proven for skin allergic reactions, aseasily penetrates the skin.The therapeutic effect is apparent within two hours of ingestion and lasts about a day.When taken in high therapeutic doses, cardiotoxicity, and no sedation.In the case of impaired renal function, the drug should be taken with extreme caution
nasal decongestants medications allergies
Most allergy medicines contain these substances amfitaminopodobnye as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride or components found in used oral medications for colds.Such listed side effects like cardiovascular disorders, insomnia and nervousness, usually occur in the case of these drugs treat allergic reactions.In addition, nasal decongestants medications allergic symptoms (sore throat, cough, sneezing, watery and itchy eyes, a runny nose) are not removed, and can be cured only nasal congestion, which is not a major vexing symptom of allergies.
Featured manufacturers nasal decongestants medications without effect "sleepiness": Sudafed and Afrinol.However, when their allergies is not recommended.