Allergic rhinitis (nasal allergies) - perhaps the most common disease to which people turn for help to the allergist.This article will keep the most complete information about the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis.
Allergic rhinitis - inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes that occurs as a result of an allergic reaction.
Typically, allergic rhinitis or runny manifest rhinorrhea (nasal actively allocated watery secret), sneezing, difficulty breathing and nasal itching sensation in the nasal cavity.
According to statistics on the disease, allergic rhinitis suffer every fifth citizen of Russia
cause allergic rhinitis
The basis of the disease is immediate hypersensitivity, and if a simpler, the allergic reaction.
under allergic reaction processes meant the majority of allergic immediate type symptoms which develops from a few seconds before twenty minutes after the initial contact with the allergen.
Allergic rhinitis together with allergic ast
possible allergens can cause the development of allergic rhinitis: a library or house dust;live in house dust mites;pollen;insect allergens; drugs;certain foods;allergens of yeasts and molds.
serious risk factor for the disease is a genetic predisposition
symptoms of allergic rhinitis
most typical signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis:
• Clear watery discharge from the nose, which in the case of joining a secondary infection transformed into paroxysmalfrequent sneezing long
• Shortness of breath bow (usually with severe allergic rhinitis) and nasal congestion is usually worse at night
• Intense itching in the nose
In acute allergic rhinitis look quite typical patient.Due to the difficulty of nasal breathing patient breathes predominantly mouth, there is a slight swelling of the face, the eyes are often red, watery eyes there, under the eyes can appear dark circles.Quite often involuntarily, patients with allergic rhinitis rubbing his hand tip of the nose (this symptom is called "allergic salute").
most often allergic rhinitis is shown for the first time in childhood or early adolescence, and among blood relatives of patients with allergic rhinitis often seen people with various allergies.
Allergic rhinitis depending on the severity of symptoms is divided into easy, medium and hard.
mild - the symptoms of allergic rhinitis do not interfere with sleep and reduce efficiency.Moderate - sleep and daily activity are reduced moderately.Severe allergic rhinitis - severe sleep disturbance and efficiency due to the severity of symptoms.
longest symptoms emit round and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
seasonal allergic rhinitis usually occurs as a result of pollen allergy, and less frequently as allergies to mold spores.
Often when you visit a doctor, patients themselves indicate the factors provoking allergic rhinitis (cleaning of the apartment, contact with animals, leaving the nature, being in a dusty environment, and so forth.).
admission at trial of antihistamines often a temporary relief.Often the symptoms are combined with allergic rhinitis symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, or precede asthma.
Virtually all known rhinitis (professional rhinitis, atrophic rhinitis, psychogenic rhinitis, drug-induced rhinitis, hormonal rhinitis, infectious rhinitis), except for minor differences have similar symptoms, but, despite this, each of them require individual treatment.It is therefore able to correctly diagnose the disease only one skilled in the art, i.e.allergist.
Often, patients long enough to enjoy the nasal vasoconstrictor drugs, but eventually the abuse of these drugs for the disease is getting worse.
Most people with allergic rhinitis there is increased sensitivity to such a pungent smell like the smell of tobacco and chemical household products
Tests for suspected allergic rhinitis
In the case of the slightest suspicion of allergic rhinitis, you should not delayVisit ENT physician and allergist.Audiologist can detect the possible presence of comorbidity ENT and allergist eliminate or vice versa confirms the nature of the allergic patient to delivering a strong discomfort symptoms.The most important question in the correct diagnosis allergic rhinitis is the identification of the causative allergen - the substance, contact with which leads to the development of the above symptoms.To do this, usually use the following types of diagnostics:
• Skin tests .This is perhaps the most cost-effective and informative method of diagnosing allergies, which should always be carried out only in specially equipped medical.office.During the examination of the patient often on the inner surface of the forearm make a few scratches, which apply 1 drop of the test allergen, and then through the allotted time the reaction is evaluated.This method is the most authentic and informative, but has some limitations (skin tests are prohibited to carry out during the acute illness, and nursing and pregnant women).
not less than five days before the procedure adopted to cancel all of antihistamines.
• blood test for specific immunoglobulins .This method will allow to detect allergens by a blood test, and is more convenient than the skin tests that you can take during an exacerbation during pregnancy, feeding the baby, and while taking antihistamines.Also, there are no any age restrictions, while the skin tests to one year does not pose.Despite all of the above advantages, have given a blood test, there are two quite serious and sometimes decides not to his advantage minus - a high incidence of false positive results (20%) and very high cost ($ 10 for a single allergen, and they are sometimes tested to50). often in children under one year analysis of blood revealed an allergy to exotic fruits and seafood (mussels, shrimp, crab), while the parents swore that their child, even in the face not seen.That is why , if the general condition allows, it is better to be surveyed by setting skin tests.
Sometimes, in the case of any doubt, the doctor may prescribe additional analyzes (smear from a nose on a microflora and mushrooms, sinus X-rays).
is very rare to find out the degree of airway obstruction is carried forward Rhinomanometry
treatment of allergic rhinitis
treatment of allergic rhinitis begin only after the final determination of its allergic nature, and confirm the nature of the disease.Like most other allergic diseases, allergic rhinitis treatment is to reduce allergic inflammation of the mucous and allergen-carrying spetsficheskoy therapy (immunotherapy)
immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis
Immunotherapy is the most radical and effective treatment for allergic rhinitis.Please be aware that this treatment can only be carried out under conditions of allergy allergist's office or hospital.Tactics of treatment consists of introducing small doses of the allergen provoking the reaction of gradually increasing its concentration.The purpose of these manipulations - to develop an organism stability (tolerance) to allergens.In the case of the correct treatment of allergic rhinitis can disappear forever.The earliest possible start of immunotherapy significantly increases the chance of absolute resistance to allergens, and as a result, a complete cure of the disease.The vast number of patients, this method is completely cured allergic rhinitis
anti-inflammatory treatment of allergic rhinitis
This method of treatment of allergic rhinitis provides comprehensive application of a number of drugs.In most cases, treatment of allergic rhinitis assignment begins antihistamines as drops or tablets.In recent years, the second preferred drugs (Kestin, Zodak, Claritin, Tsetrin) and third (Zyrtec, Telfast, Aerius) generation, who are appointed only once a day by mouth, in an age-appropriate dose of the patient.Duration of treatment is highly individual, but it usually does not last more than two weeks.Although these drugs without prescription in the pharmacy network for a long time to appoint their own can not afford, as some of these medications have a negative effect on the heart muscle, while others significantly inhibit the ability to think.Most third-generation drugs are safer but their rather high cost is often a major limiting factor for many patients, especially when the need for chronic treatment.
If the above treatment measures have proved ineffective, in addition appointed acting directly on the nasal mucosa local media.Mild allergic rhinitis prescribe derivatives sodium cromoglycate (Kromosol, Kromoglin, kromogeksal), comes in the form of nasal sprays.The drug should be used during the entire period of exacerbation 3 p.day 1 injection.The therapeutic effect of the use of these sprays will appear not earlier than five days (maybe later), so their action is considered greater preventive than curative.
Typically, this group of drugs indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children or mild rhinitis in adults.As a rule, the treatment of allergic rhinitis for at least two to four months, although it is possible year-round use of drugs.
Noteworthy enough Nazaval new drug, based on the production of which is vegetable cellulose.This drug is available as a nasal spray to the nasal mucosa and creates microfilm, which prevents mucous contacted with the allergen.
During an exacerbation of allergic rhinitis, the spray practically ineffective, so it is recommended for use only as a prevention.
In severe allergic rhinitis flow of the main drugs of choice are issued in the form of sprays, nasal corticosteroids (Benorin, Nazarel, Fliksonaze, Nasonex, Bekonaze, Nasobek, Aldetsin).The drug is prescribed in doses corresponding to the current age of 1-2 p.per day, and the duration of treatment is determined solely by the attending physician.
often make mistakes in the treatment of allergic rhinitis - long-term use to relieve breathing vasoconstrictor drops (Vibrocil, Naphthyzinum etc.).Long term use of these drugs leads to the development always rhinitis medicamentosa any degree of severity, the treatment of which can require surgery to the nasal passages.Vasoconstrictor is advisable to apply to the use of intranasal corticosteroids, and only in case of severe nasal congestion.
In general, nasal decongestants in allergic rhinitis is better not to abuse
People's treatment of allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis is one of the few diseases where traditional medicine is unable to help.To date none of the existing developed technique that could recommend in allergic rhinitis patients.Therefore, the treatment of allergic rhinitis methods of traditional medicine could lead to the accession of secondary infection, aggravation of the disease and the postponement of the appointment of adequate medical treatment.
only thing that can be recommended to patients with rhinitis, it twice a day to wash your nose with salt p-rum (per 200 ml of water 1.5 tsp salt).However, even this method must necessarily be combined with medication, since the independent use it no tangible results will not give
lifestyle and diet in allergic rhinitis
main aspect of treatment of allergic rhinitis is the elimination or reduction of exposure to provoking the diseaseallergen.Individual recommendations are made for each patient after the detection of the causative allergen.The character of preventive measures depends on the specific type of allergen.
So, during the exacerbation of pollen allergy, patients are encouraged to relocate to the area where the causal plants do not grow, and if it is impossible - to try to leave the room just after lunch, when the concentration of pollen in the air is declining.Food allergy involves the complete elimination of the products for which the patient had positive tests (test for allergies).Allergies to dust provides constantly pursued wet cleaning, in which for preventing ingress of dust allergens in the mucous should wear a special mask
Allergic rhinitis during pregnancy
Every third woman pregnancy contributes to the appearance of the first or aggravate existing allergies.Both for patients and for their doctors this is some difficulty, as during pregnancy, most survey methods and medicines used strictly forbidden.
symptoms of allergic rhinitis in pregnant women is absolutely no different from the classic manifestations.Certain influence on the fetus may have a disease only in case of severe disease and inadequate treatment.
cause of allergies during pregnancy reveal, based only on the results of a blood test, since conducting skin tests in this state is contraindicated.
treatment of allergic rhinitis of pregnancy is carried out with the greatest possible restriction of the use of antihistamines, in view of their potential adverse effects on the fetus.In case of emergency in minimal dosages used drugs Generation 3 (Telfast and so forth.).In the first trimester nasal corticosteroids is advisable not to appoint.For topical treatment of allergic rhinitis apply derivatives sodium cromoglycate (kromogeksal etc.) And Nazaval (agent based on cellulose)
Allergic rhinitis in children
In children allergic rhinitis usually manifests after three years, and most allergicrhinitis child develops in the case in the past it has been observed any allergic reactions (usually in the form of allergic or atopic dermatitis).
Such a change in clinical allergic manifestations: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis → → asthma, called "atopic march".
symptoms of allergic rhinitis in the child's symptoms virtually identical to that observed in adults, with only one difference - the children there are several large sensitization to food allergens.
treatment of allergic rhinitis in children begins with the selection of the most appropriate drugs that have the greatest possible safety profile.