Nowadays, there is a significant increase in the number of various allergic diseases in the course of which there is damage to eyes.These include eye disease in patients with hay fever, allergic keratoconjunctivitis and allergic conjunctivitis.In the first place in the list (by frequency of occurrence) is allergic conjunctivitis.In this article we will try to highlight the most questions related allergic disease.Allergic conjunctivitis
- inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye allergic manifested swelling, itching and watery eyes.For reference : conjunctiva - the tissue lining the inner surface of the eyelids and the front surface of the eyeball.
Allergic conjunctivitis is most common in young age, with the same sex ratio.Accurate statistics on the prevalence of the disease does not exist because the allergic conjunctivitis is often combined with other allergic manifestations usually allergic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.According to numerous observations an
cause allergic conjunctivitis
Because of the anatomical structure of the eye, access to a variety of allergens from the environment takes place smoothly.The most common cause of allergic conjunctivitis development of pollen allergens (mostly wind-pollinated plant pollen), epidermal allergens (down and feathers, animal hair and dander, etc.), And household allergens (library dust, house dust, house dust mites, etc.).Women often are allergic to household chemicals and cosmetics.Food allergies cause of allergic conjunctivitis rarely speaks.
Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis develops almost immediately after contact with the allergy-causing substance
symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis
After contact with an allergen, the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis develop from a few minutes before the day.For allergic conjunctivitis, conjunctival inflammation of the membranes of the eyes rather atypically, therefore, usually affects both eyes (one eye is usually affected only if the allergen was entered directly into it, for example, hands).
main typical symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis: redness of the conjunctiva, swelling, watery eyes, a strong back in the eye.When severe illness can develop photophobia.Itching is usually the most vexing symptom of allergic conjunctivitis, constantly forcing the patient to rub his eyes, thereby only reinforcing the others clinical manifestations.
Adrift allergic conjunctivitis is divided into acute (sudden onset and relatively rapid cure) and chronic (inflammatory process is sluggish for a long period).Character inflammation directly dependent causal provoking allergen and frequency of contacting with them.When
wrong or completely untreated, allergic manifestations are often joined by a secondary infection, which manifests itself in the corner of the eye the appearance of purulent discharge.
often in diagnosing patients themselves indicate the cause of the allergy causing them acute.A small initial test brings relief often receive antihistamines.
diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis is included in the sphere of interests of two physicians - ophthalmologist and allergist, so soon after the discovery of the above symptoms, the patient for further examination must apply to start one of them, and it is desirable to start all the same to an ophthalmologist, since such displays oftenobserved in other diseases of the eye
Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis
therapy of allergic conjunctivitis is based on the elimination of provoking allergen, symptomatic drug therapy and immunotherapy.If this is possible, the most effective method of therapeutic effects and prevent further development of allergic reaction, it is the complete elimination of the cause of allergies.
When poliallergii, as well as in the case of unexpressed reaction, shown holding a non-specific allergen immunotherapy, which in ophthalmology is gistoglobulina injections (six to ten injections per course).Hiposensibilic Specific treatment is carried out only in case of failure to achieve the elimination pinpoint the reasons for the ineffectiveness of allergens and symptomatic medication.
In case of severe allergic conjunctivitis flow shown systemic administration of antihistamines, and these medications for three to five days are included directly in the complex therapy.
Due to the fact that all antihistamines are the first generation (pipolfen, Tavegil, Diazolin, Suprastin, diphenhydramine, and so on.) Have a sedating effect, they are administered only in exceptional cases, be sure to notice while the patient about such side effects like constantdrowsiness.In the practice of the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, preference is given to such a preparation as the second generation of Claritin.
To remove the constantly vexing patient symptoms (conjunctival hyperemia, swelling, tearing, photophobia, eyelid itching), and allergic conjunctivitis all shown holding a local anti-allergic medication.For a long time the main place in the anti-allergic conjunctivitis therapies take these two groups of eye drops as a mast cell stabilizers and antihistamines conjunctiva eye drops.And they can be used either alone or in combination with each other and other necessary medication anti-inflammatory therapy.
In subacute and chronic conjunctivitis eye drops used cromoglycates (kromogeksal, alomid etc.).The drugs of choice in the case of occurrence of acute allergic conjunctivitis are providing fast antiallergic effect and reduce the body's response to histamine, such as an antihistamine drops Allergodil and spersallerg.
Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis methods of traditional medicine to carry out not to be, as experiments with eyewash various "grandmother" potions can only provoke an aggravation and to promote adherence to allergic conjunctivitis secondary infection
Allergic conjunctivitis in children
usually allergic conjunctivitis occurs inchildren after three years, although exceptions are always possible and it is very rarely observed even at an early age.It is quite traditional, allergic conjunctivitis when the child is accompanied by allergic rhinitis.Most often, if a child has allergic conjunctivitis was first developed in the past he had observed any allergic symptoms (usually the type of diathesis, atopic dermatitis, etc.).
highest prevalence in children had a food allergy, the treatment is carried out according to generally accepted principles.If food allergy diagnosis is confirmed, it is necessary as soon as possible initiate an allergen-specific therapy, since childhood it shows the most optimal results.
In addition, children often observed pseudoallergy reactions that looks very much like an allergy, but in fact developed due to entirely different reasons (illness gastrointestinal parasites, etc..)
Allergic conjunctivitis during pregnancy
Rarelybut it is still found when allergic conjunctivitis manifests during pregnancy or aggravated the already existing disease.Treatment of any allergic (and other) diseases during pregnancy is associated with many difficulties, which stem from the fact that during this period the majority of drugs and some surveys are strictly prohibited because of the potential for harm to the fetus.
during pregnancy symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis is absolutely no different from the classic.The disease on the fetus in any way a negative is not affected.Toxic effects on the kid can only occur in the case of the use of the future mother during pregnancy forbidden to use drugs.
Diagnosis of allergy during pregnancy is reduced only to a blood test for specific immunoglobulins.Local treatment is only possible derivatives sodium cromoglycate.Because of the potential for adverse effects on the fetus, in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis during pregnancy should limit the use of antihistamines.If their reception is inevitable, preference should be given to the third-generation drugs (Telfast and so forth.).
Like any other allergic reaction, allergic conjunctivitis is a chronic disease.Existing therapies can cause quite a long stable remission, but the allergic disposition of the body still remain.
prognosis of allergic conjunctivitis is quite favorable, but in the absence of treatment is often seen joining a secondary infection or exacerbation of pre-existing diseases of the eyes (keratitis, glaucoma, etc.).
Prevention of allergic conjunctivitis to date not been developed.Secondary prevention techniques aimed at removing from the environment provokes allergies and to prevent exacerbation of existing ophthalmic disease.