Atopic dermatitis - a common dermatological diseases of allergic nature, evolving as a response to exposure to the irritating factor, in this case the allergen.The occurrence of allergic dermatitis largely predetermined by predisposition of the patient to the development of allergic reactions.The rate of development of dermatitis varies from few hours to several weeks
The causes of allergic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis - an allergic reaction of the body in slow motion, in other words, an allergy develops over a long period of time, in the case of a sufficiently long contact of the body with a provoking stimulus.In such cases, the allergic reactions are involved, specific immune cells (mostly lymphocytes) and audio antibody.This is confirmed by the study obtained from the pathological focus the material, during which always reveals quite characteristic feature - the pathological focus in the present left the bloodstream large clusters of immune cells.
provokes the development of this disease the most common allergens are all kinds of chemical irritants.Most detergents are different, nickel, chromium, insecticides and their compounds.Many allergens including cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: various hair dyes, antibacterial ointment, sintomitsinovaja emulsion and so on. Just the allergen itself often cause an allergic reaction can not be due to their very small size, but getting into the bloodstream it comes into contact with a fairly large proteinsblood.But get in the end connections and become the very same provokes response allergens.
Recently, a special importance in the development of contact allergy (allergy develops as a result of contact of the stimulus to the skin) confer located directly in the layers of the skin cells, phagocytes, which are able to absorb and then digest allergens and are in the skin of immune complexes (linked chemically toImmune protein allergen).Even after just a few hours after contact with the skin provoking allergen, from sensitivity to a person, the number of these cells may increase by several orders of magnitude
This type of dermatitis develops due to effects on the skincontained in the milky sap of certain plants and pollen, substances sensitizers.The most pronounced allergenic properties are observed in plants lily family, Euphorbiaceae, buttercup and the genus Citrus.Often the cause of allergic inflammation of the skin acts as a houseplant as the Primrose family Primulaceae (reaction provoking substance contained in a plant - Primin).
fitodermatita allergic symptoms: blisters;redness of the skin area (erythema);burning and itching of the skin (usually on the hands).
Treatment begins with the mandatory removal from skin residues of the stimulus, which the affected area thoroughly wipe soaked in alcohol with a cotton swab.Then place precipitation in order to remove inflammatory corticosteroid ointment applied (deperzolon, prednisolone) as well as mitigating ointments, which are based on boric acid.According to the testimony may be used antihistamines
toxic-allergic dermatitis (drug reaction)
This type of dermatitis develops as a result of an allergen entering through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, intravenous or intramuscular injection.That reception of drugs is the most common cause of toxic-allergic dermatitis.The most pronounced allergic properties are observed in some anesthetics, antibiotics and sulfonamides.Called one drug, drug reaction in different people may exhibit different symptoms.So, if the dermatitis is caused by the use of antibiotics, most often observed scaly erythematous rash (rarely blisters).If dermatitis has developed as a result of receiving sulfonamides, usually a fixed erythema in the mucosa of the mouth, hands and groin, which allowed the residual pigmentation after a few days after the termination of the provoking drug.
most severe form of toxic-allergic dermatitis is Lyell's syndrome, which manifests itself in a few hours / days after taking the drug the sharp deterioration of the general condition, which is manifested by symptoms such as dehydration, weakness, headache, a significant increase in body temperature, nausea, vomiting.Against the background of erythema in the buttock, armpit and groin folds there are bubbles on the field opening that produce erosive area.Depending on the severity of the epithelium detachment could take from 10 to 90% of the skin, in the absence of proper adequate treatment often leads to death.
Treatment of toxic and allergic dermatitis is the desensitization of the body, neutralizing the toxic effect of the drug and in removing it from the body, which are appointed by the anti-inflammatory and anti-histamines.Therapy Lyell's syndrome is usually performed in the intensive care unit and consists of high doses of antihistamines and glucocorticoid drugs, as well as in the intravenous drip detoxification.In the case of concomitant conjunctivitis appointed hydrocortisone ophthalmic ointment and drops with dexamethasone.Affected skin is irrigated corticosteroid sprays, treated anti-inflammatory and disinfectant.
Corticosteroids should be used with extreme caution, as they may cause atrophy of the skin (usually on the face).It should also be borne in mind that the local use of antibiotics can lead to resistance of bacteria and subsequent development of allergies.In connection with the possible development of such serious contraindications Dermatologists usually recommend to use a non-hormonal cream Skin-Cap, which is based on the activated zinc pyrithione.Outside the treatment of atopic dermatitis according cream can begin with the first year of life, since he is completely absent typical of topical antibiotics and hormones side effects.As anti-inflammatory effect Cream Skin-Cap is absolutely no way inferior hormonal drugs, and because of its antifungal and antibacterial action significantly reduces the risk of joining the infection and normalize the skin flora
Allergic contact dermatitis
This type of dermal skin lesions developing in the case of repeated contact withspecific allergen, since the first contact comes sensitization phase, in other words it is lasting about two weeks, the formation of specific immunity against the allergen.Then repeated contact with an irritant, the body triggers the immune response, manifested by an allergic reaction.After the termination of the provoking agent of the disease symptoms disappear completely.
The most common cause of contact dermatitis development detergents, various dyes, cosmetics, detergents, salts of some metals (chromium, cobalt, nickel), as well as the chemical components found in agriculture, construction and manufacturing.
Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis:
• Emerging on-site break blisters erosion, are permitted pigmentation
• vesicular rash, which manifests itself filled with clear content bubbles
• Swelling lesion
• clearly delimited site redness at the site of direct contact with an allergen
Primarily treatment of allergic contact dermatitis should be directed at eliminating the contact with the allergen.In the case of the professional nature of the disease, when contact with the irritant due to the specific characteristics of professional activity, be sure to use personal protective equipment (masks, gloves, etc. spets.obuvi.), And at the end of the work shift is mandatory to take a shower.If this does not bring the desired positive results, you should think about changing the profession.To facilitate the symptoms of contact dermatitis shows the use of antihistamines (Gistalong, Simpreks, Fenistil) and corticosteroid ointments (deperzolon, prednisolone)
symptoms of atopic dermatitis
Clinical manifestations of the disease resemble symptoms of the acute stage of eczema.Originally on the skin appear quite large patches of redness in the future against which formed multiple tiny bubbles, which then burst, leaving in its place continuously moist superficial skin defects.Also on their site can be developed in a large number of small crusts and scales.The main focus is always perfectly in place of direct contact of human skin with the allergen.
Atopic dermatitis as any allergic reaction, is a disease not only directly affected organ or region of the body, as a whole, and the whole body, so the appearance of secondary lesions may occur anywhere on the body.Most often this spot redness, swelling and areas of small bubbles, which can be located from the place of direct exposure to the allergen is very far away.
For example, if an allergic skin reaction to mascara, redness may develop spots so large that would be covered by the skin of the whole face, shoulders and neck.Almost all patients with rashes on the skin complain much molesting intense itching, which often disrupts normal night's sleep and daily life
Atopic dermatitis in children
Children allergic dermatitis can develop completely at any age, with the youngestit is often combined with food allergies.In very young children, this condition is commonly called thrush.Dermatitis in children can be both chronic and hereditary.
development of allergic skin reactions in children is usually caused by a sboim immune system and to push for the development of the disease need only minor provoking factor, in this case the allergen.Under its influence, in the early course of atopic dermatitis there is barely noticeable slight redness on the buttocks and cheeks, red scabs on his head and minor peeling place.The most common rashes appear on the legs, arms, back, scalp and cheeks.Places redness accompanied by itching, scaling and roughness of the skin followed.Usually the symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children occur in the first year of life, from two to six months of age.A young child due to heavy allergic dermatitis causes itching very strong pain.
During exacerbation of atopic dermatitis in children symptoms are even more pronounced: erythema (redness) is even more pronounced, swollen skin lesions, rash transformed into vesicles (blisters filled with clear content), itching significantly enhanced.Then comes the so-called subacute phase characterized by remission of symptoms, at which partially disappear redness on the skin but still remain dry red brown.After that comes the period of the complete disappearance of cutaneous manifestations of the disease.However, unfortunately the disappearance of skin symptoms does not mean that the baby is completely healthy as atopic dermatitis is a chronic disease.
Atopic dermatitis in children depending on their age occurs in different ways, according to what he has been divided into the following conditional phase:
• Infant phase.More often it begins with the eighth week of life and is manifested by skin lesions (usually on the forehead and cheeks) acute eczematous character.Then gradually begin to appear changes forearms, shoulders and legs (rarely on the buttocks and torso).Infant phase of atopic dermatitis can sometimes heal spontaneously, but more often observed his transition into the next phase
• Children's phase.This phase begins after a year and a half and lasts until puberty.During the course of children's phase rash often spreads throughout the body, thereby forming a solid lesions that result from constant scratching covered crusts.Usually the rash foci observed in popliteal and the elbow, on the hands at the top of the chest and on the side of the neck.Most children with the time the rash is only on the knee and the elbow
• adult stage.This stage occurs during puberty and their clinical symptoms does not differ from the symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults
diagnosis of atopic dermatitis .The most common diagnosis of atopic dermatitis does not cause any particular difficulties and is based on the obtained during the survey of patient data on a thorough visual inspection of his skin.In all observed cases, an allergic reaction is specific and specific to atopic dermatitis, but for the final validation of the diagnosis shows the use of skin allergy tests
Treatment of allergic dermatitis
The treatment of atopic dermatitis is based on the results of the preliminary examination and appointed strictly individually.Unfortunately, experience has shown that the reason causing this awful nasty skin disease of allergic nature persists not always and not for everyone.But the symptoms and the consequences can be removed using a special desensitizing therapy and hypoallergenic diet.
Since usually leads to inflammation of the skin, histamine, in the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis use antihistamines better third generation (Telfast, Zyrtec, Erius etc.) That are substantially devoid of side effects compared with the drugs of the first and second generations.For topical treatment of inflammation of the skin with blisters and erosions present recommended corticosteroid ointments Elidel, Advantan, Lokoid.If developed allergic contact dermatitis on the face, apply Advantan emulsion, which is applied with a thin layer on the skin (some rubbing) no more than once per day.