mutism Latin denotes a mute, mute.Neurology attributes this phenomenon to the neurotic speech disorders, manifested in the dumbness, and the rejection of speech.Psychiatry examines mutism as a manifestation of delirium, severe hysteria and hallucinations.For this pathology characterized by the preservation of speech and understanding.
patient ignores contacts with others, does not answer questions.Such a violation occurs after injury or concussion, trauma, death of loved ones, fire, symptoms of dementia - cognitive impairment syndrome.
mutism - the reasons
mutism is able to emerge as a result of hysterical neurosis.Ill say that after the excitement and emotional turmoil they disconnected it.While in this state, they understood it, we perform the proposed regulations clearly describe their experiences on paper.
often hysterical mutism alternates with Athos, which is characterized by safety whisper speech.
Allocate relative, absolute, voluntary and involuntary mu
for involuntary mutism characterized abulia (painful apathy, indecision) and inhibition of all functions.At voluntary - sick silent protest.
relative and absolute mutism is the same as the elective and total.
mutism in children
Since 1927 starts to be studied in depth mutism in children.For children's disease is characterized by passive protest personality.Treatment consists of psychotherapy sessions calming, condescension and of indifference.
voluntary mutism in children is characterized by increased sensitivity, lack of initiative, activity, mood swings, stubbornness, capriciousness, infantilism.These children are afraid of the new situation, a new resist load changes are scared of the situation.
Child psychiatrist Moritz Tramer first analyzed the selective mutism have a child of seven, developed in response in response to the determination of its school.Tramer called the total or elective mutism, and later proposed to replace the voluntary.
reason for the development of children's diseases, he believed vulnerability, timidity, lack of autonomy, infantilism, asthenic traits.Children elective mutism passes to reach the age of ten.
Other authors consider children mutism as a manifestation of neurosis, arising as a result of trauma.First of all, after psychic experiences in children suffering intellectual and speech activity.Good examples can perform stress, migrated children during the war.
Weber in his work on the elective mutism argued that the pathology is caused by the inability of the individual to establish a contact.For example, mother and child, it treats the illness as a symbiotic attachment and as a consequence - the tendency to inhibit speech.Weber distinguishes simple jet and psychoneurotic mutism.
Simple jet M. acts stuporous reaction to fear or anxiety, and the basis laid psychoneurotic mutism abnormal processing of the experience.
But these two cases show regressive neurotic dynamics.
disease in children is accompanied by depressed mood, sensitive, timid, inhibited.
Signs of mutism in children include: indecision, timidity, anxiety, confusion, frequent reaction of protest, violation of appetite and sleep.
researchers tried to classify mutism on various grounds.
They are divided by the intensity of his appearance: situational (short-term), elective (regular) or total.
For the duration of the nature and the continual release transient.
Psychiatrists consider psychogenic mutism as a severe shock reaction and subshokovogo character.The main factor provoking pathology in children appears psychogenic effects, affecting the function of speech.There is a big difference between psychogenic mutism in children and older children.In adolescents, the clinical picture is much more complex and diverse.
General psychogenic mutism in children:
- incidence in girls is more common than in boys;
- occurs in families where there is a family history of speech disorders;
- ill psychogenic mutism have as delayed speech development and other defects in the function of speech;
- children grow up in families among the negative psychological climate;
- most children have cerebral pathology (residual).
for children neurotic mutism characterized by:
- speech impairment after a period of dialogue with others;
- lack of motility disorders, behavior, facial expressions (look, a gesture child expresses their wishes);
- selective nature of the disease, depending on the specific situation or person;
- delayed intellectual development and the emergence of speech defects.
Children with symptoms of a psychotic mutism silent since early childhood, and their behavior is allocated remoteness and isolation from all the world.Kid impression of indifference, but may show aggression to the mother or to himself.When you call him, the child may be very anxious.
Elective mutism in children occurs due to socio-cultural factors.Immigrant children when you move to a new country is experiencing great mental stress, possible depression, anxiety, hostility towards others.
mutism and autism
Infantile Autism and mutism appears to reduce the need to communicate with others, different immersion into the world of their experiences, the lack of emotional adequate relationships with people, the presence of elaborate movements, echolalia, regarding themselves use pronouns and verbforms the second and third person.
Treatment of mutism in children
success of treatment depends on the different variants of psychotherapy (mainly from the game) and group lessons.The role of drugs in the treatment of young patients is small.The disease is possible and much easier to prevent.Create around affectionate child friendly environment, do not use harsh penalties and strict requirements.Pay attention to the child's bed, limit eating spicy food, liquid.If a child suffers from autism, the diet in autism will help ease the symptoms of the disease.Stick mode, more walk in the fresh air.
Surdomutizm in Latin refers to deafness, which is due to a congenital genetic defect.This term is used to determine the deaf-mutism, which evolved without defeat hearing aid.
Surdomutizm attributed to mental disorder, which is common during the hostilities.An example would be a very strong explosion.
Surdomutizm - a disease of a temporary nature, in which speech and hearing very quickly restored.This helps the releasing therapy, and in cases of prolonged treatment at the recommended comprehensive psychoneurologists, teachers, speech therapists, otolaryngologists, surdopedagogs.
mutism - treatment
with psychogenic mutism effectively massive psychotherapy in conjunction with the methods of tranquilizers and neuroleptics.
There are many effective methods and treatments mutism and surdomutizma.The focus is directed to the following areas: mental health, speech therapy, neurological and psychological.
Effective Herbal Treatments (motherwort, valerian), which contribute to calming the nervous system.It was also recommended in the treatment of Mebrium, bromine salts, Andoksin, chlorpromazine, and reserpine.
Positively-proven method amitalkofeinovyh disinhibition in the treatment of mutism and surdomutizma.The method subcutaneously in 1 ml of a 20% solution of caffeine and intravenous solution of 5% sodium amytal.Further there are explanations for the patient to eliminate the painful disorders.
thing to remember is that the advanced disease is treated much more difficult.And if time does not begin treatment, the disease will take persistent.
mutism outlook depends on the underlying disease.Much depends on personal qualities and how sick a long time distorted the nature of the patient's disease.
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