Carcinoid: symptoms and treatment of disease
carcinoid (neyrokartsinoma, carcinoid syndrome, Argentaffinoma) - quite a rare hormone - tumor activity, its structure resembling cancer.It refers to a group APUD.In most cases, these tumors occur benign, but having the ability to metastasize - often lead to very serious complications.
This tumor is localized mainly in the gastro - intestinal tract: 80% of recorded cases in the appendix, the rest of the cases occur in the intestines, stomach, gall bladder and pancreas.Extremely rare tumors occur in the ovary, liver, bronchi and other organs.Carcinoid size ranges from 0.1 cm to 2 cm, in some cases, can reach 6 to 8 cm in diameter.The structure of the tumor has plotnoelasticheskuyu texture yellow - gray.The most characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of granules in the cytoplasm and cell argentaffinnyh birefringent lipids.
also a distinctive feature is the slow growth of carcinoid tumors.Metastases occur in the later stages of the di
The causes of this disease, as in other matters, and other tumors, up to date,not fully understood.Many of the symptoms are caused by the hormonal activity of the tumor.Based on the results of numerous laboratory studies have shown increased secretion by the tumor cells of histamine, serotonin, bradykinin and prostaglandins lizilbradikinina.
Clinically, the disease is divided into functioning and nonfunctioning carcinoid.A feature of nonfunctioning K. is that it can be a fairly long period of time may be asymptomatic
course and symptoms of this disease are a collection of local symptoms caused by the tumor itself and its hormonal activity.The local manifestations include: local pain, symptoms resembling acute appendicitis, symptoms of intestinal obstruction, you may experience pain during bowel movements and intestinal bleeding, significant weight loss and anemizatsiya.Carcinoid syndrome is also characterized by vasomotor reactions characteristic changes in the skin, bronchospasm attacks, destruction of the pulmonary artery and heart giperperistaltika gastrointestinal tract.
Enough characteristic symptom of the disease is short-term, there is a sudden reddening of the skin of the face and upper body, which is accompanied by a sensation of heat, general weakness, tachycardia, runny nose, watery eyes, bronchospasm, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, cramping painstomach and diarrhea .Duration of seizures varies from a few seconds to ten minutes, and during the days they can be repeated.Often patients are diagnosed tricuspid heart valve, circulatory failure, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.
Diagnosis of the disease especially if the tumor is small - enough difficult.In the early stages of nonfunctioning K. often found by chance during examination or during surgery.Functioning K. diagnosed as well as other similar formations on the basis of instrumental and laboratory research and the overall clinical picture
only surgical treatment that is radical removal of the tumor and metastases.Chemotherapeutic agents for treating this disease are not effective.The prognosis for life relatively favorable, but only in the absence of metastases.