Diseases of internal organs



polyposis photo polyposis - a disease of the collective value that indicates the formation of tissues with different origins and often occur on mucous membranes.These peculiar neoplasms (polyps) connected with the mucous membrane with a base and legs, which are the lymph and blood vessels.Polyps come in different shapes, size, density.If they are localized as a single education, called polyps, and in multiple localization - it is polyposis.

Typically, polyps are observed in the gastrointestinal tract, the endometrium of the uterus, in the nose, bronchi and lungs.They germinate in these organs, causing polyposis.When the disease is often marked inflammation with bleeding and edema.Sometimes the leg of the polyp can become twisted, causing its extinction and spontaneous rejection.Polyposis somatic organs such as the stomach, intestines, uterus refers to a precancerous condition because it is often transformed into oncology.

mainly diagnosed polyposis stomach and intestines, which are pathological d

evelopment mucous membranes.In most cases, they are hereditary disease, such as congenital familial polyposis.

Symptoms of the disease depends on the location of the polyp, its structure, and changes in the value of the secondary plan.Sometimes polyposis can flow virtually asymptomatic, and in some cases causes bleeding narrows or closes gaps bodies.

When diagnosing polyposis use different instrumental methods of examination.These include X-ray, gastroscopy, bronchoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and others.

polyposis is used to treat surgical method under which a polyp excision, resection of the body or its total removal.

reasons polyposis

Today conducted numerous experiments in European laboratories to ascertain the causes of polyposis, have not led to positive results.So far not established the main reasons for its occurrence.Although at the moment it is considered that the formation of polyposis have a change at the genetic level, which lead to increased proliferation of cells resembling layers.

In practice, many doctors polyps are mainly found in women in the gallbladder and stomach (80%).Such selective predisposition due to the influence of estrogen on the development of polyposis.But despite this, it is very difficult to say why one appears the disease, while others do not.

Definitely it can be argued that polyposis never formed in the cells of healthy tissue.Such a proliferation of tumors contribute to chronic inflammatory processes that cause rapid aging of the epithelium.Sometimes, the formation of different types of polyposis, may also influence chronic genital infections.

endometrial polyposis

This pathology is the formation of benign etiology of multiple formations in the uterus.These formations are called polyps, which are hyperplastic process, resulting in a growing basal layer of the endometrium, ieone of the inner layer of the uterus.

endometrial polyps mostly typical for women from thirty-five to fifty, but can also develop in the young and in the elderly.

all polyps have the body and leg, which consists of epithelial cells.When polyposis endometrial polyps several forms, which depend on the construction of the structure.They may be composed of glandular and glands and stroma;glandular-fibrous - from a small amount of glands and connective tissue;adenomatous and fibrotic - with existing malignant cells.

Young Women of reproductive age are mainly found polyposis, which consists of glands, and older women more often found and adenomatous polyposis fibrosis.But with glandular polyps fibrous structure may occur in any age group.

exact causes in the development of endometrial polyposis unknown.But there are assumptions about the causes that may contribute to the formation of the disease.These may be treated as an excess amount of estrogen and insufficient progesterone during hormonal disorders;when uterine trauma as a result of abortion, prolonged wearing intrauterine devices, curettage for diagnostic purposes after termination of pregnancy, childbirth, insufficient removal of the placenta (the remnants develop into connective tissue, forming polyposis), miscarriages.Also disorders of the endocrine system and diseases such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, changes in the thyroid gland can have a definite effect on the occurrence of endometrial polyposis.

In addition, stress, depression, various inflammatory processes in the appendages, infection, endometritis and lowered immunity are considered to be a possible cause of the development of the disease.

Clinical symptoms of endometrial polyposis are enormously diverse.When the small size of polyps, the disease does not manifest itself clinically and revealed completely by chance during examination by ultrasound.But if endometrial polyposis manifests itself, it is in the form of menstrual disorders that can be characterized by scanty spotting spotting between cycles, which are not due to menstruation.And sometimes menorrhagia.

Clinical symptoms in post-menopausal manifested by single spotting.Also recorded cramping pain in the abdomen nature that become stronger at the time of sexual intercourse.Manifest abnormal discharge in the form of cables from the genital tract.And with endometrial polyps larger, formed bleeding after sexual intercourse, and develops infertility in their reproductive age.

endometrial polyps is often diagnosed as endometriosis or uterine fibroids, as well as bleeding between periods taken for risk of miscarriage in the first half of pregnancy.Therefore consulting a gynecologist and surveys are essential for any deviation from the norm.

To exclude or confirm the diagnosis carried ultrasound of organs in the pelvis.In this case, possible to determine a homogeneous mass growths (polyps).Furthermore, hysteroscopy used, whereby the time of diagnosis may remove formation while visually monitor the uterine cavity.Application of histological examination to determine the structure of the polyp.

endometrial polyposis can cause various complications such as infertility, anemia, relapses and degeneration into a malignant polyp benign pathology.To avoid this, you need to be seen regularly by a gynecologist, to carry out prevention of obesity, stop abortion, in a timely manner to treat inflammatory diseases of appendages and uterus, as well as to use hormonal contraceptives.

Polyposis gallbladder

6% of people diagnosed during ultrasound gallbladder polyps, and 80% of it falls on women after thirty-five years.However, ultrasound is not always determines the structure of the tissue, and in the absence of tumors in the gallbladder is set misdiagnosed as gallbladder polyposis.Besides ultrasound applied prospectively endoscopic ultrasonography, which distinguishes wall layers in the gallbladder.

is not established yet the underlying causes of polyposis, gall bladder, and there are only theoretical speculation.Many experts argue that the disease is no specific symptoms.

Currently gallbladder polyps can manifest itself in two ways.This type of cholesterol polyps, iepseudotumor, which are presented in the form of cholesterol deposits, towering over the gall bladder mucosa.Such an accumulation of cholesterol caused by metabolic disturbances, which contain calcified and inclusion.They create a picture of gallstones in the bladder, which are fixed to the walls.

The second type of polyposis gallbladder polyps are inflammatory.This is also a pseudotumor.These tumors are characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder, which is growing as a result of its internal tissue.All adenoma, papilloma, tumors with papillae are true benign polyps, but 30% of them develop into malignant forms.

Typically, polyps of the gallbladder occurs without specific complaints of patients.Some patients may experience epigastric pain or discomfort in the right upper quadrant, and also can not tolerate certain foods.Changes in blood formula is not defined.Neither duodenal intubation or cytology do not give information.

nasal polyposis

This disease with abnormal proliferation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.Polyp concept introduced in antiquity physician Hippocrates, which means "multilegged".With a significant amount of data in the nose tumors diagnosed - nasal polyposis.

tumor is characterized by soft translucent gelatinous consistency that is easily moved, absolutely painless, it does not show sensitivity to touch.Sometimes polyps can acquire different shades such as red, pink and burgundy.

nasal polyposis is often accompanied by allergic rhinitis.Therefore, the disease can be diagnosed as polypoid rhinosinusitis.Polyps in the mature state represent a kind of a bunch of grapes.

Symptoms of nasal polyposis is made up of various manifestations.The basis of patients' complaints lies in the long labored nose breathing, a feeling of stuffiness in the nasal passages and foreign body sensation in them.Also, patients have a constant runny nose with mucous or muco-purulent discharge.In addition, patients often suffer from colds.A characteristic feature of nasal polyposis is anosmia, in which the patient completely loses the sense of smell with a preliminary breakdown of smell.Sometimes the disease is in violation of taste sensations.

Very often nasal polyposis causes of pain in the head and in the area of ​​the sinuses near the nose.Patients may experience voice disorders, there is hoarseness, twang, snoring during sleep, and patients complain of constant chronic fatigue, which is caused by lack of oxygen.

nasal polyposis, has been known for over five thousand years, it is diagnosed in almost 5% of all adults.The disease has long studied deeply, but etiological factors in the occurrence of nasal polyposis remain unknown.Typically, when an infectious nature of the disease to exfoliate the top layer of cells lining the nose along with pathological microorganisms.Properly conducted treatment promotes healing, at which the restoration of the nasal mucosa.And it, in turn, can again function fully, while performing a protective function.If you do not treat the underlying disease, it gradually becomes chronic.This manifests itself in a constant flow of inflammation in the sinuses.Then, the protective function of the mucosa is exhausted, and it gradually expands and captures large areas to deal with the infection.Thus, the formation of polyps from the thickening of the nasal mucosa.

in nasal polyposis can develop an important role to play frequently occurring diseases colds and infectious etiology, such as sinusitis and chronic processes such as the etmoidit, sinusitis and sinusitis.Various forms of allergic diseases, among which is bronchial asthma, hay fever and allergic rhinitis with etiology.More to the formation of nasal polyposis direct relation can have a deviated septum, cyst in the paranasal sinuses, narrow nasal passage, and others. In addition, diseases such as cystic fibrosis, mastocytosis syndrome Yang, hereditary factors, abnormalities in the immune system, and fungal disease may trigger the development ofnasal polyposis.On the occurrence of the disease mainly affects many causes in the complex.

The formation of polyps can last for many years.So at the beginning of polyposis patients do not pay attention to the small light runny or stuffy nose.Typically, polyps are benign disease, but they gradually expand in the nasal cavity and closes the passage for breathing, thus hindering it.

Before the appointment of treatment to the patient's nasal cavity inspected otolaryngologist, using rhinoscope.To clarify the diagnosis computed tomography is carried sinuses.If you suspect a malignancy, a biopsy is taken material.

gastric polyposis

This disease is a benign tumor, which is formed from epithelial tissue of the stomach wall.At the heart of the development of gastric polyposis is the process of regeneration, which is accompanied by gastritis with chronic leakage.

polyps in the stomach may occur as single or multiple elements.Polyposis of the stomach can take a huge area, and develops most often in people over fifty years.

Typically, gastric polyposis detected completely by chance during radiological examination.This is because the disease takes a long time without showing obvious signs.

polyps in the stomach may be of several types, such as adenomatous, hyperplastic and juvenile.The first version of polyps develop from glandular tissue, which is inside the stomach.So formed adenomas, which are considered less widespread, but more frequently than others develop into a malignant pathology.If the survey were detected adenomatous polyps, then immediately appointed surgery.

etiology hyperplastic polyps are formed from the reaction of the organism to a chronic inflammatory process in the cells that line the inside of the stomach.Very often this type of polyps can be found in people suffering from gastritis.Basically they do not become cancer, but large scale is likely to become malignant disease.

most rare types of tumors are juvenile polyps and hamartomas.This form of cancer is localized in the bottom of the stomach and does not turn into a malignant.

reasons that can provoke gastric polyposis, may be a variety of hereditary diseases.But the factors contributing to the appearance of polyps in the stomach, are: infection of Helicobacter pylori, age category, after fifty years, genetic predisposition (for adenomas).

polyposis stomach begins to progress rapidly as a result of the abuse of food, such as fatty, spicy and fried, as well as the frequent use of alcoholic beverages.

is important to always remember that gastric polyposis, with delayed treatment is very dangerous.This benign anomaly can always develop into cancers.

clinical picture of gastric polyposis is made up of a variety of symptoms.Quite often, the disease is under the guise of other pathologies.Therefore, it should definitely be examined for suspected gastritis, which occurs with epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting, bad breath and bitter taste, bloating and belching.

When ulcerations appear bleeding, which is rarely characterized by its abundant, but sometimes become a cause of death.When complications observed dizziness, weakness and pallor.

to diagnose gastric polyposis used endoscopic and radiographic studies, which play a crucial role in the diagnosis.Endoscopy allows to accurately detect polyps, find out their sizes and shapes, as well as to determine the state of the gastric mucosa.Radiographic examination reveals defects due to occupancy of the stomach, which may reflect the size and shape of the polyp.

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