Esophagitis - an inflammatory disease of the esophageal mucosa, occurring in chronic or acute.The inflammatory process in this disease develops on the inner (mucous) membrane of the esophagus, and in the case of further progression strikes had deeper its layers
Causes of esophagitis
acute esophagitis develops as a consequence of acute infectious diseases (sepsis, scarlet fever,diphtheria, influenza etc.) with thermal burns (hot drink, food), due to irritation of the esophagus various chemicals (alkali, iodine acid), resulting in allergic reactions to foods and after physical damage (burns,Damage by foreign bodies and mucosal injury in the introduction of the probe).The most severe damage to the esophagus are considered after the burn.
chronic and sub-acute esophagitis can occur for the following reasons:
- eating spicy, very hot food as well as alcoholic beverages
- Food allergies
- Inhalation various corrosive chemicals
- Prolonged intoxication, tissue hypoxia
also to the emergence of the disease can result in violation of the evacuation function of the esophagus as a result, the accumulated food remnants irritate the mucous membrane.Sometimes chronic esophagitis accompanies chronic inflammatory diseases of the stomach and throat, as well as such chronic infectious diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis
Symptoms of esophagitis
When catarrhal form, the disease can occur without obvious clinicalsymptoms except sometimes manifested esophageal hypersensitivity to cold or hot foods.
In severe forms manifest pronounced pain symptoms (severe burning pain in the chest, often radiating to the back and neck).It appears disorder swallowing, heartburn and excessive salivation.With extremely severe forms may be bloody vomiting, shall communicate sometimes to a state of shock.
main clinical manifestation of this form of the disease is heartburn, which usually intensifies after ingestion of carbonated beverages, coffee, fatty and spicy foods, as well as in the case of overeating.Among other symptoms can be bitter or sour belching with bile, respiratory distress, pneumonia and laryngospasm.It is also possible the emergence of regurgitation in a horizontal position or torso;chest pain when swallowing resembling coronary.
complications, which can result in esophagitis:
- Stenosis: narrowing of the esophagus, which leads to violations of the passage of food into the stomach, which leads to weight loss
- peptic ulcer of the esophagus: the formation of a deep defect wall of the esophagus, resulting in its shorteningand rough scarring
- Flegnoma, abscess (at damage esophageal foreign bodies)
- Perforation of the wall of the esophagus: Due to the great danger to life requires immediate surgery
- Disease Barrett
In the event that there was an acute form due to chemical burns - to remove the chemical agent is urgently needed gastric lavage.
to treat mild acute form of the disease is recommended during the first two days to abstain from meals.Assigned to medical treatment with famotidine group and antacids.After a period of fasting and the beginning of the food should be completely excluded from the diet products that can damage the lining (rough, hot and spicy pizza, alcohol and coffee) as well as food, are able to activate the production of gastric juice (any fatty foods and chocolate).You must also be fully smoking.
In ulcerative esophagitis with pain manifestations prescribed painkillers (gastric lavage is strictly prohibited).
In severe cases of the disease need to eat very carefully and cautiously, and in some cases comes to a complete rejection of enteral nutrition.Appointed gel antacid medications and enveloping.In the case of severe intoxication, with the help of detoxification solutions held infusion therapy.To eliminate the infection antibiotics are appointed.In the case of treatment failure foci of purulent inflammation with antibiotics - held surgical rehabilitation.
Patients with this form of the disease is necessary to refuse medication that affect the esophageal sphincter (prostaglandins, tranquilizers, theophylline, sedatives), and completely give up smoking.Recommended daily last meal at least two hours before bedtime and after a meal do not take a horizontal position.
Drug therapy involves the administration of drugs that increase the tone of the cardia (holinomimetiki and receptor blockers-dopa) and drugs that reduce gastric acidity (blockers H2 histamine receptors, proton pump inhibitors, antacids gel with anesthetics).
Physiotherapy includes electrophoresis, amplipulse, balneotherapy and mud.
prognosis of this disease in the absence of complications is quite favorable, subject to diet and maintaining a healthy lifestyle.