April
18
23:01
Circulatory system diseases // Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

Colitis.

Colitis.Symptoms and treatment of colitis

colitis Colitis - an inflammatory or inflammatory - dystrophic lesions of the mucous membranes of the large intestine.Colitis distinguish on chronic, acute and ischemic (seen only in the elderly).The cause of colitis are: staphylococci, pathogenic coliform bacteria, bacterial dysentery, streptococcus bacteria group Proteus, protozoa or viruses

Etiology, Pathogenesis

Acute colitis

Most cases of acute colitis is directly related to infectious agents: Escherichia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Shigella, etc., as well as much less - other pathogenic flora and some viruses.Also the reason of acute colitis can sometimes be non-bacterial poisoning, various allergic reactions and very rough errors in nutrition.By type of inflammatory colitis are divided into: erosive, catarrhal, fibrinous and ulcerated.Acute inflammation of the walls of the intestine leads to various of its severity functional disorders of the colon.

Chronic colitis

Causes of chronic colitis can

be a parasitic lesions, infectious diseases (especially dysentery) and some factors of non-infectious origin.Toxic colitis result from exposure to various toxic agents for industrial and domestic use (salts of mercury, arsenic, lead);nutritional colitis - due to systematic errors and as a power mode.The emergence of drug colitis associated with uncontrolled prolonged use of laxatives and antibiotics;associated colitis develop due to insufficient secretion of the pancreas and glands zheludka.Takzhe chronic colitis are allergic nature.The mechanism of their development is dominated by atrophic, degenerative and inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the colon, which are accompanied by violations of its motor and secretory functions.

Ischemic colitis

Violation of intestinal blood flow, which in most cases is associated with atherosclerosis of the branches of the abdominal aorta is the main cause of ischemic colitis.This is due to the fact that, due to complete or partial blockage of the lumen of the inferior mesenteric artery atherosclerotic plaque occur dystrophic or necrotic changes of the colon wall.Much less the cause of impaired circulation of the intestine may be: a hemorrhagic vasculitis, periarteritis nodosa, and so on. The defeat predominantly localized in the splenic node

clinical picture

Acute colitis

In most cases takes place in conjunction with gastroenteritis, acute enteritis oraccompanies intestinal infections.The disease always begins acutely: the body temperature rises to 38 - 39 * C, have diarrhea, there is thirst, sharp cramping localized in different parts of the colon, loss of appetite.Seizure frequency may be from five to twenty times a day.On palpation abdominal pain observed in the course of the colon and rumbling.

Chronic colitis

One of the most common diseases of the digestive tract, which in most cases combined with gastroenteritis and chronic gastritis .In its course of chronic colitis is divided into oligosymptomatic - long and chronically - recurrent.Have diarrhea, sometimes alternating with constipation;in the stool can be a large amount of mucus or blood-streaked.After defecation remains a sense of nonfatal bowel, stomach swollen, marked flatulence.Aching dull pain have no clear localization, although mostly marked lower left abdomen (worse before stool and after meals).Due to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the sigmoid colon and may join pain in the anus.On palpation abdominal pain occurs in the course of the large intestine and the strong rumbling.

Ischemic colitis

This type of colitis occurs in benign stenosing or lightning forms.Type of flow depends on the degree of blood flow and the size of the affected vessel.When benign and stenosing form, in most cases, immediately after a meal, there is intense pain in the upper half or the left side of the abdomen, vomiting, and flatulence.Can increase the body temperature, in 50% of cases diarrhea (sometimes with blood), which can alternate with constipation .On palpation the expressed pain in the course of the colon, and sometimes on the left side of the abdomen protective muscle tension

Treatment colitis

Acute colitis

Depending on the severity, treatment of this type of disease is carried out in the laboratory,or in a hospital.Assigned light diet (Table №4), to make up for the lost salts and fluids used salt solutions ("Oral", "Regidron" kvartasol, trysail and so on.).As symptomatic and pathogenic therapy applied enveloping means, adsorbents and enzyme preparations (white clay, activated carbon and so forth.), As well as depending on the evidence - cardiovascular drugs.If installed infectious nature of occurrence of colitis - appointed antibacterials.In mild cases, treatment is limited as much as possible the use of symptomatic drugs and specially developed diet , without the use of antibiotics.

Chronic colitis

Venue treatment of this type of colitis depends on the phase of the disease and the general condition of the patient and can be a polyclinic and stationary.In exacerbations appointed split meals between six and seven times a day, and the appointment of diet No. 4a, 4b or 4c.When the marked aggravation in the first two days spent in the hospital appointed by fasting.In the case of home treatment diet should include a light broth, boiled or steamed meat, boiled river fish, boiled eggs, slimy soup, sweet tea and jelly.Between improvements can be added to the diet is first boiled and mashed, and then fresh fruits and vegetables.Antibiotic therapy (sulfonamides) prescribe a course of five days, in the absence of improvements - prescribe antibiotics.When expressed pain and prescribe antispasmodics platifillin (no-spa, papaverine).For the general strengthening of the body appointed by the reception of ascorbic acid (injection) and the B vitamins If diarrhea - absorbent and astringent preparations, decoctions and infusions of herbs (sage leaf, oak bark, bilberry and others.), Warmed-carbonated mineral water.When constipation - to prescribe the use of herbal laxatives (zhostera fruit, buckthorn bark, senna leaf, etc.) And mineral water (Batalinskaya, Slavyanovskaya, Smirnoff, Essentuki №17).In cases of pronounced flatulence assembly of herbs should be added chamomile flowers, fennel seeds and stems centaury.In cases where the predominantly affects the rectum - prescribe medicinal oil microclysters.Also in the complex therapeutic measures include: acupuncture, psychotherapy, physiotherapy.In periods of improvement (remissions) for the normalization of intestinal motility is assigned to a deep massage of the abdomen.Also attributed to the sanatorium - spa treatment (KMV, Truskavets, Druskininkai).

Ischemic colitis

In the event of a lightning form of this type of colitis is related to the development of clinical acute abdomen - you need emergency surgery, aimed at removal of the affected portion of the colon.In therapy stenosing form used anticholinergics, antispasmodics, anti-sclerotic angioprotectors and drugs.If joined appointed infection antibacterials.

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