Endocrine diseases



hyperthyroidism photo Hyperthyroidism - a pathological condition caused by an excess of the body's thyroid hormone.Sometimes this condition is called - intoxication thyroid hormones.In medical practice, it is synonymous with hyperthyroidism hyperthyroidism, which is manifested by an increase of the thyroid gland .However, an increase in thyroid function often occurs in everyday conditions (pregnancy in women, and so forth.), While the term thyrotoxicosis fullest sense discloses disease, namely poisoning of the thyroid hormones.

Hyperthyroidism is a pathological condition reverse hypothyroidism.The meaning of the differences is that hypothyroidism content of thyroid hormones rather insignificant and the speed of functioning in the human body processes significantly reduced, while thyrotoxicosis is the opposite - there is the maximum production of hormones to their highest activity

Hyperthyroidism - Causes

Homethe cause of hyperthyroidism - Graves' disease.It occurs in about 75% of patients.Typi

cally, the disease is hereditary and occurs in conjunction with other autoimmune diseases (autoimmune thyroiditis and so on.).Hyperthyroidism is not an independent disease, but a whole range of symptoms seen in diseases such as the Graves' disease, pituitary adenoma, thyrotoxic adenoma, multinodular hyperthyroid goiter, subacute thyroiditis.Much less

thyrotoxicosis may be caused by excessive administering to thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, thyroxine), which are used as replacement therapy following partial resection of the thyroid gland, after the removal of the entire prostate, hypothyroidism.

thyrotoxicosis may first appear as a toddler in infants and in older children, or adults.Predisposition to develop the disease usually persists for life.Earlier hyperthyroidism necessarily associated with diffuse toxic goiter, but later were classified and other diseases accompanied by hyperthyroidism.In 1961, Graves' disease was officially recognized as a disease of the thyroid gland, whereas hyperthyroidism then was defined as a syndrome caused by excess levels of thyroid hormones.

There is a theory that patients with advanced stages of the disease are present in abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors that body's own immune defense perceives as foreign.The second option considered immune disorders, consisting in nepripyatstvovanii immune response against their own tissue

forms of hyperthyroidism

• Mild hyperthyroidism.For this form is characterized by a slight decrease in weight, mild tachycardia (heart rate of 100 beats per min.).Dysfunction is observed only in the thyroid gland, reduced heart are normal, other organs are not affected

• Medium form of hyperthyroidism.In this form the patient loses much of its weight, heart rate high enough (about 120 beats per min.).Tachycardia becomes constant, and it does not affect any sleep or a change in body position.For the average form characterized by digestive disorders, which lead to the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and diarrhea, temporary changes in heartbeat, problems with carbohydrate metabolism, decrease cholesterol

• Severe hyperthyroidism.This form is observed in the cases previously observed violations of the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, which were not completely cured, or the treatment itself was not assigned correctly.Severe form of the disease leads to severe dysfunction of organs and systems

usually caused by the development of the above forms of hyperthyroidism appears Graves' disease, but sometimes the cause of the disease may be a large number of falling from the environment into the body of the thyroid hormones and high content of iodine (the use of iodine-containing drugs)Photo thyrotoxicosis

Thyrotoxicosis - Symptoms

Sufferers thyrotoxicosis people complain of feeling of fear and anxiety, irritability, sweating, sleep disturbances;shake torso, tongue and fingers;palpitations, rapid weight loss, pain in the heart, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, exophthalmos, decrease or increase the contrary (for mild / moderate form) appetite.

original function of the liver is not broken, but with the growth of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, there is a significant increase in the liver.The concentration of bilirubin in the blood, may develop jaundice.In severe thyrotoxicosis long observed dysfunction of the sex glands (in men - gynecomastia, and reduced potency, women - amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea).Perhaps thyrogenous symptoms of diabetes.

Almost 100% of patients there is a decrease of mental activity, emotional disorders, asthenia.In severe thyrotoxicosis, the basal metabolic rate reaches 100%.With long this disease increases metabolism and catabolism of proteins that could trigger the development of diseases such as osteoporosis.Cardio-vascular system develops a whole range of disorders, called "thyrotoxic heart."Violations of the circulatory system are heart palpitations, increased blood volume and blood velocity.Often detected noise and increased heart tones (usually at the top of the heart), a gradual increase in the left ventricle, and after him with all my heart.

There are a special form of hyperthyroidism, which is against the background of bradycardia or normal rhythm manifested attacks tahisistolicheskoy form of atrial fibrillation in the absence of symptoms of toxic goiter.

By increasing the size of the thyroid gland in the patients' complaints about the increase in the neck and a violation of swallowing.To diffuse toxic goiter characteristic manifestations of infiltrative ophthalmopathy - photophobia, lacrimation, the feeling of the sand and the pressure in the eyes, double vision gases, reduced vision.Also, special attention is drawn to exophthalmos, manifested in the protrusion of the eyeballs

Hyperthyroidism - Treatment

to determine the correct tactics of treatment of thyrotoxicosis, it is primarily determined by its cause.Most often it is diffuse toxic goiter.To the disease has developed three main methods of treatment - treatment with radioactive iodine, conservative and surgical treatment.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine is completely painless and is swallowed capsules or liquid radioactive iodine, which is getting into the body, cells of prostate accumulates and leads to their death and subsequent replacement by connective tissue.Hypothyroidism is a major complication of treatment by this method.In such cases, it shows a life pursued thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

Conservative treatment of hyperthyroidism is taking thyreostatics (propylthiouracil, tiamazol), the effect of which is directed at suppressing the activity of the thyroid gland.Conservative treatment requires timely and accurate medication, and regular visits to the endocrinologist.Besides using medicaments try to compensate for disturbances of the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamus and the central nervous system.

Surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism is carried out only in case of failure of conservative treatment, with retrosternal location goiter, with suspected cancer and significantly enlarged thyroid gland

thyrotoxicosis in children

usually hyperthyroidism is diagnosed in children born to women who sufferthis disease in the past, or having it present.In the development of hyperthyroidism in the newborn a role to play action of thyroid stimulants and other stimulating thyroid stimulating antibodies, quite often determined in the blood of mother and child, and passing through the placental barrier.

Typically, six to twelve weeks after birth, hyperthyroidism in the newborn is held, however, in exceptional cases, it remains and flows over the years, accompanied by the typical clinical picture of diffuse toxic goiter.Children with hyperthyroidism (mostly boys) are usually born prematurely.The most characteristic feature of these children is projecting bulging forehead, many children have an enlarged thyroid gland, the body temperature have increased slightly.Against the backdrop of increased metabolism characterized by poor weight gain, there is diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, irritability, exophthalmos.There may also be the following symptoms: increase in liver and spleen, increased heart rate, jaundice, breathing slowing, thrombocytopenia, arrhythmia, enlargement of heart borders, overdevelopment of lymphoid tissue and swelling.X-ray examination of the skeleton is clearly visible craniostenosis and accelerated development of the skeletal system.In the blood, there is a very low concentration or absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone, with elevated levels of thyroid hormones

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