Graves' disease - caused by an overactive thyroid endocrine disorder characterized by increased responsiveness of the nervous system, increased tissue metabolism, increase in thyroid gland (goiter), overproduction of the hormone thyroxine and numerous changes of all systemsorganism.
Graves' disease usually begins to manifest itself in the age range between thirty and forty years, and most sick people who have a family history of thyroid cancer observed defects.Among all known thyroid disease, Graves' disease is firmly in second place after the hypothyroidism, the incidence of - 1 in 100 people (more common in women)
Grave's disease - causes
characteristic appearance of a man known to many, but not allprobably know that the development of the disease can occur in the body due to the presence of autoimmune processes.Autoimmune diseases - defects of the immune system in which the body's own immune system produces agents that target the damage and the destruction of their o
addition causes Graves' disease may include: hereditary predisposition, female gender, chronic foci of infection.Graves' disease often occurs in people with diseases such as chronic tonsillitis, vitiligo, Addison's disease, diabetes, hypoparathyroidism.Also goiter may develop as a result of a variety of viral infections, or after the use of radioactive iodine as a survey.
Despite all the above reasons, the etiology of Graves' disease studied is not enough.Clinically proven fact - the acute form of the disease develops as a result of significant neuro-psychological turmoil.The first manifestation of symptoms or worsening of the disease is already present observed due to an illness such as the flu, chorea, acute tonsillitis, rheumatic fever.Other infections, in particular tuberculosis, leading to the development of Graves' disease or toxic by specific destruction of the thyroid gland.
However, despite this, a significant proportion of cases of Graves' disease, the exact cause of development can not be established.The vast majority of reported cases of illness accounted for the age gap between eighteen and forty years, and in women the disease occurs six times more likely (scientists attribute this to the greater activity of female endocrine activity)
Graves' disease - symptoms
Typically, Grave's disease begins unnoticed.Man worried mood swings, sleep disturbances, sweating, restlessness, tremors, seizures, heart.Most often, patients begin to lose weight, although in some cases, on the contrary, there is weight gain.The skin become dark shade in the legs appear dense swelling.The thyroid gland is constantly increasing, it is painless and smooth.Hyperthyroidism affect the adequate work of all organs and body systems, namely the following symptoms:
• Government vision - eyes wide open (exophthalmos), convex, shiny, enlarged;swollen eyelids, over the pupil appears white stripe when you look down.Disturbed blood supply of the eyeball, which often causes damage to the optic nerve and conjunctivitis.All this contributes to a significant reduction in vision, and in some cases, the appearance of blindness
• Cardiovascular system - broken heart rate, increased blood pressure, paroxysmal heartaches
• Central nervous system - anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, headache
• digestive system - liver dysfunction, diarrhea, nausea (rarely vomiting), increased motility
• Exchange processes - increases the risk of diabetes, impaired carbohydrate metabolism
• Endocrine system - production of adrenal hormones is reduced, disrupted sexglands (in men in the form of impotence, women - infertility and menstrual disorders)
Degree course Graves' disease:
→ Mild.Usually goes unnoticed, the patient's condition is satisfactory, the heart rate is in the region of one hundred beats per minute, the shortage of body weight less than 10%
→ Average degree.Increased blood pressure, heart rate more than a hundred beats per minute, the shortage of body weight of about 20%
→ Severe Graves' disease.There are numerous lesions of other organ systems, the heart rate exceeds one hundred and twenty beats per minute, the shortage of body weight more than 20%.Seriously ill people, even in complete peace absorb 80% more oxygen than healthy ones of the same weight, height, sex and age.
Diagnosing Graves' disease often does not cause difficulties.Recognition of the disease is based on the following main symptoms: goiter, tremor, and tachycardia exophthalmia (considered the most constant symptom of Graves' disease).To confirm the diagnosis, and radioisotope carried ultrasound.In addition to determining the concentration of thyroid hormones is a suitable blood
Graves' disease - treatment
choice of treatment is based on the causes of the disease, the size of the crop, age of the patient, the possibility of surgical intervention and the desire of women to have children in the future.Treatment of Graves' disease may be carried out as a medication, or by surgery, during which removes part of the thyroid gland.But still the main treatment for Graves' disease is a medical at the initial stage is to suppress thyroid function are assigned high-dose tsirostatikov (Mercazolilum, propylthiouracil).Despite the fact that the symptoms disappear after taking the drugs after six to eight weeks, treatment should be required to keep for six months to two years.To avoid side effects (rapid heart rate, etc.). Many patients simultaneously appoint Inderal.
If a woman is pregnant, in order to minimize the danger of fetal thyroid hormone deficiency, the dose of medication prescribed minimum.Due to the fact that often occurs after childbirth significant deterioration, young mothers should be under constant supervision.In the case of a woman continue to receive the drug in the minimum dosage, subject to periodic inspection of the thyroid gland baby, she can continue to breast-feed the baby.
Another widely used treatment for Graves' disease is a one-time intake (orally) of radioactive iodine 131. This method is preferred for those who have children in the future is not planned.
If drug treatment does not give the desired result, it is shown holding a surgery that involves the removal of the thyroid gland to reduce its ability to produce hormones.However, be aware that surgical treatment does not eliminate the cause of the disease.
As a result, developing ophthalmopathy Graves' disease, the treatment of which is the use of high doses of corticosteroids or local medication.When Popeye pressure on the optic nerve is seriously increased, so in some cases to relieve pressure may need surgery or radiotherapy.
thyrotoxic crisis to remove the used drugs, the effect of which is aimed at suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones.As a maintenance therapy is prescribed vitamins, nutrients, fluids and sedatives.
During the treatment it is necessary to exclude the use of iodized salt and limit the use of iodine-rich foods.Also, during treatment sunbathing is prohibited, and that the treatment will fail.Very often, Graves' disease is transmitted through the female line, and usually a generation (grandmother - granddaughter).
forecast Graves' disease is not very comforting.In the case of light obliterated form, the disease can last for decades, without causing the patient's condition in any significant changes.But in the case of an acute course of Graves' disease mortality rate reaches 30%.Most often, the disease is benign, although occasionally patients significantly decreases performance, due to insufficient blood circulation, the nervous system and so on. The main cause of death is the depletion of diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and other toxic symptoms of heart failure.
Prevention Graves' disease is to eliminate severe nerve shocks, the timely treatment of viral infections, control lifestyle.It should also be cautious in making potassium iodide, as it is even in conventional medical protivoskleroticheskim dosages may have predisposed to cause goitre