April
20
23:02
Stomatology

Jaw cysts

cyst jaw

cyst of the jaw photo cyst jaw - this new formation, the fibrous tissue which forms a wall epithelium lines the inside of it, and the content is filled with exudate.The cysts are odontogenic jaw, ie formed from the remnants of the developing tooth or already cut.In addition, there are false odontogenic cysts (pseudocysts) that do not have an epithelial lining of the inside, it's their special features.If they are not diagnosed in time and make the right treatment, complications can occur.

There congenital jaw cysts developing from epithelial tissue of the naso-palatine canal.On the X-ray image are visualized as foci of enlightenment, with clear outlines, located between the roots of the maxillary incisors.

cyst incisive papilla is a variant of jaw cysts, resulting from the mucous membrane.It gradually increases in volume without causing trouble to the patient.After contact jaws possible injury, while its surface becomes painful, ulcerated, red, may bleed during a meal.Such cysts are excised surgically

.Recurrences are rare.

reasons jaw cysts

jaw cysts are numerous reasons.The first explanation of the origin of this disease - the infection is in the processing of root canal during endodontic treatment: push infected dentine chips for the apical foramen, the lack of medical treatment of the root canal (passage and channel processing must be carried out under the tray of antiseptics).If you ignore these rules, the risk of complications in the apical tissues is much higher.Dentists until now have not come to a consensus: what filling material should be preferred and whether to conduct retrograde filling?This question is very significant.

The mouth contains about 450 species of microorganisms.Among them there are both pathogenic and opportunistic.If the oral hygiene of the patient is reduced, the amount of pathogenic microorganisms will grow, and the background of the immune system can reduce the growth of tumors.Factors that reduce the body's immunity: stress, lack of sleep, malnutrition, hypothermia, etc.).Difficult dentition, trauma, infectious diseases can trigger the development of jaw cysts.

There are three main types of cysts of the jaws - keratokista (primordial), follicular and radicular cysts.Keratokista - education, often settling down on the lower jaw, the walls of which are formed by fibrous tissue.It is often formed in the retromolar area where erupt eighth tooth (wisdom tooth).According to the structure of the cyst is a single-chamber or multi-chamber.Liquid cavity contains a substance called cholesteatoma.Possible recurrence of the cyst.

follicular cysts of the jaw or "cyst eruption."It is formed from germ impacted tooth.Its location is generally in the field of canine and premolar upper and lower jaws.When a computer in the study of these teeth will be visible segment of enlightenment with clear contours, inside the cyst may be formed or immature germ of a tooth.Inside follicular cyst covered with epithelium.

radicular cyst is the most common jaw.The incidence is 80%.Radicular cyst of the jaw is located near the tooth root, usually it occurs in periodontitis.Radicular cyst wall thin fibrous cavity is lined by stratified squamous epithelium neorgovevayuschim which includes lymphocytes and plasma cells.In the case of inflammatory cells grow inside the walls, causing bloating and discomfort.In multiple and abundant sprouting cyst of the upper jaw can penetrate the maxillary sinus, causing sinusitis.

Symptoms and signs of jaw cysts

Education small for a long time may go unnoticed.The clinical symptoms of odontogenic cysts of the jaws do not show.Usually, cysts of the jaw found in the X-ray of human teeth.

Odontogenic cysts of the jaws have a large number of clinical signs.Patients will complain of the presence of lumps, swelling in the jaw, there is a deformation of the jaw bones.At the rear wall of the cyst of the maxilla suffer from headaches as a result of compression of the nerves, sinusitis symptoms (runny nose, a feeling of nasal congestion due to inflammation of the mucous membrane, a fetid smell.) Upon germination in the lower nasal passage symptoms are similar.With a small pressure-sensitive characteristic of parchment crunch.

When you join secondary infection occurs festering jaw cysts.Clinical picture becomes brighter.There is a swelling of the face due to the collateral edema of the surrounding tissues, restriction of mouth opening with involvement of the chewing muscles, mobility of the causal tooth pain when biting hard foods.Possible detachment of tissues.

odontogenic cysts symptoms are very similar to symptoms of osteomyelitis.But if there is osteomyelitis mobility of several teeth, numbness tissues relevant area (symptom Vincent).

cyst of the maxilla

cyst of the upper jaw is not uncommon.The upper jaw - a steam facial bones of the skull.In its composition has the compact bone and cancellous bone.By number of spongy substance prevails, which contributes to the rapid spread of cysts deep in the bone.Anatomical features of the upper jaw is that this pneumatic bone.Maxillary sinus has an individual structure.The dimensions of the cavity are different, the roots of premolars and molars can penetrate into the sinus or be covered by a thin mucosa.

causes of upper jaw cysts are odontogenic and neodontogennye.One of the causes of the cyst is the spread of infection through the root canal into the interior of the tooth or the periodontal pockets.

symptoms of cysts of the upper jaw: the presence of formation in the oral cavity, in the case of festering edema, pain when biting, raising the temperature to subfebrile, drowsiness, migraine.To diagnose this disease is not hard enough to make X-ray picture.The picture shows a cyst of the maxilla will be viewed as a darkened area.

radicular cyst of the upper jaw is formed at the central teeth, usually as a result of inadequate endodontic treatment (broke off the instrument) or injury.Residual cyst - a cyst kind arising after complicated tooth extraction.Follicular cyst of the jaw - one of the unfavorable shape of the brush of the upper jaw, in which the possible violation of the eruption of the permanent tooth loss and the risk of permanent tooth germ, which can contribute to the development of partial edentulous.

cyst of the mandible

cyst of the mandible is a pathology in which the jaw is formed in the interior of hollow formation.Over time, the cavity may be filled with liquid.Ill not any notes some deviations from the norm in the architectonics of the jaw, health status remains unchanged.The development of cysts in this ongoing, revealed a cyst of the mandible with a random X-ray examination.

lower jaw (mandible) - is unpaired bone in the human body, which consists of compact and spongy components.In the lower jaw the number of compact substance prevails.In the region between the fourth and fifth teeth, there is a hole through which the output of a powerful mandibular nerve.With the active growth of the cyst of the mandible may damage this nerve, which leads to serious consequences.As a result of nerve compression the patient will experience extreme pain, irritating half of the face.

manifestation of symptoms of the cyst of the mandible varied: swelling, redness, pain.On the part of the lower jaw may develop complications such as fracture, osteomyelitis, abscess, fistula formation.Variations cysts are the same as for the upper jaw.

Treatment and removal of cysts jaw

Treatment and removal of cysts jaws carried by modern surgical techniques.However, some cases may be an exception, and the treatment is carried out without surgery.In the case of festering cyst drainage is carried out, that is, surgery is necessary.

There are two main types of surgical treatment of cysts of the jaws.These include cystectomy and cystotomy.Cystectomy is the complete removal of the cyst, followed by the closure of the defect.Indications for cystectomy is:

1) cyst jaws of small size, is located within 1-3 intact teeth;

2) cyst of the upper jaw retaining wall of the bottom of the nasal cavity and has no teeth in this area;

3) cyst of the lower jaw where teeth are missing and there is enough bone to prevent pathological fracture.

cystectomy main purpose is to keep the causative teeth and teeth located next to the cyst.Teeth that trigger the development of odontogenic cysts should be are sealed with breeding material at the tip of the root.

There is an option of zubosohranyayuschey operation - resection of the root apex.But often, the teeth which are located at 2/3 in the cavity cysts after resection loose and fall out.Preservation of teeth inappropriate.Multirooted teeth are much more likely to be removed, since the passage of the root canal is much more difficult.Impacted teeth removed during cystectomy, particularly if they have led to the development of cysts of the jaw.Before cystectomy teeth should be subjected elektroodontometrii to determine viability.If the tooth is not responding to current, and there is no extension on the radiograph of the periodontal ligament, the tooth must be sealed and depulpirovannogo throughout before surgery.

cystectomy operation was carried out under the wire and infiltration anesthesia in the mandible cyst incision is made, the appropriate brush size, shape and peeled mucoperiosteal flap in the form of a trapezoid.Cut out his future with the expectation of overlap of the defect.Next trepanning bone wall, expand the mill, open to review and carry out resection of the root apex.With surgical cyst tablespoons peeled and removed along with the tip of the root.All cysts must be completely removed to prevent recurrence.After removal of the cyst of the jaw exposed roots of adjacent teeth, their tops are also subjected to resection.Then carried out an audit of the cavity, it is filled with a blood clot, which is the hope of a biological bandage.Introduction wound lavage antiseptics or antibiotics is not shown.Acceptable introduction to wound osteogenic agents (bone chips, kollapol).On the flap incision is placed, fixed catgut sutures.The patient was prescribed sick leave for a week.Assign the use of antihistamines, analgesics, anti-inflammatory therapy is sometimes prescribed.It recommended holding mouth trays solution of chamomile, sage and others.

When cystotomy basic idea is to create communication with the cavity of the mouth jaw cysts.Also it carried out anesthesia, creating an incision in the area of ​​the cyst, peeled flap trepanning wall.The front wall of the cyst and the periosteum is cut with sharp scissors, very empty cyst, the fluid is aspirated or soak gauze, flap mobilize to the remaining wall of the cyst, the cavity tightly tamponiruyut yodoformnoy turundy.Nearby resected teeth or depulpiruyut followed by sealing.The mucous membrane of the mouth heals in about a week, and then the cavity is filled with a smaller ball.The cavity is gradually reduced and disappears.Within 6-12 months cavity disappear completely.In the first 2 months the patient should come to the dressing after removing the tampon cavity should be cleaned with an antiseptic solution.In the future, after eating the patient will himself to wash the cavity with boiled water or a solution of a mild antiseptic (chamomile, sage).

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