April
22
23:00
Neuroscience

Dizziness

Vertigo

dizziness photos Vertigo - a sense of apparent movement or rotation of the body in space or the incorrect determination of his body in the surrounding space.Patients describe the dizziness completely different, it's: swimming or swinging head, incoordination, rotating inside the head, weakness in the legs, instability, unsteadiness in walking, and so on. Dizziness is a symptom of more than eighty proven physical and neurological diseases.In addition, this condition can be observed in the cardio - vascular diseases, blood diseases, mental diseases and pathologies of the ear and the eye.Dizziness - extremely unpleasant subjective symptom, significantly reduces the quality of human life

Dizziness - Causes

Maintaining equilibrium depends on the surface of sensory, proprioceptive, vestibular and visual information, and is provided by a complex unique mechanism, which is called the vestibular system.All incoming sensory information is processed in the CNS and simulated activity of the extrapyramidal s

ystem, reticular formation, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex.At the same time, the vestibular receptors control the position of the head, determine the change in gravitational force, changing the angular and linear acceleration, and translate all of this information stored in the machining the brain electrical impulses.

vestibular apparatus located in the pyramid (in a rocky part) of the temporal bone and its structure looks like a three cavities (anterior bony cochlea, the central cavity with spherical and elliptical bag; vestibular rear camera and three bony semicircular canal) bony labyrinth.Blood of the vestibular apparatus is provided with the branches of the basilar and anteroinferior cerebral artery, internal auditory artery.In the absence of any abnormalities, vestibular activity takes place on a subconscious level, at the same time is a lightning recognition of any changes in the patterns of sensory influences.Not a single person without a second thought about holding the balance when running and walking, on the situation in the eye jumps, tilt and head movements.All this makes him instantly vestibular apparatus.In case of any dysfunction modulation generation or integrate this complex mechanism, there is an imbalance, dizziness and possible nausea and even vomiting.

In its current vertigo may be transient and insignificant or constant growing symptom of a person of serious abnormalities or disorders

Causes dizziness - damaged due to the vestibular nuclei with the cerebellum, in the trunk, with the medial longitudinal fasciculus, with cerebralthe brain, the muscles of the body and neck, the nuclei of the eye muscles, as well as the pathological changes of the vestibular portion of the inner ear.

There are systemic and non-systemic (true) dizziness

non-systemic dizziness - a sense of instability and a sense of insecurity surrounding area.This type of vertigo occurs when cerebellar and emotional disorders, lesions of the optic analyzer, with near syncope

System (true) dizziness - the illusion of movement or the surroundings of the human body directly in the environment.The system is accompanied by dizziness, anxiety, sweating, pallor of the skin, nausea and vomiting.The true form is associated with stimulation of certain areas of the vestibular analyzer, and is divided, depending on the extent of damage to the central and peripheral vertigo (dizziness).The most frequent causes of true vertigo: a variety of intoxication, degenerative and inflammatory processes of equilibrium and hearing;circulatory disorders of the inner ear, brain.

The world neurological practice often dizziness occurs in a variety of emotional disorders, pathologies of the cervical spine and vascular diseases of the brain

Emotional . Depression , various neurotic disorders, easy fatigue and malaise can mimic almost any symptoms of diseases of the body.In some cases, the only symptom is vertigo, noise / ringing in the ear, the noise in my head.In these diseases, vertigo is accompanied by severe fatigue, continuous focus on fixing his bad state of health, sleep disorders and appetite, increased anxiety, combined with a bad mood and tearfulness

Pathology cervical spine .On the shortage of blood supply to the vestibular system reacts quite sharply.Vestibular centers of the brain and the inner ear of the feed on the blood of the vertebral arteries, which lie in narrow channels of the cervical spine. osteochondrosis , trauma or instability of the cervical vertebrae often leads to compression of the arteries, leading to a shortage of blood and hence dizziness.The main symptoms of the disease in the data: shakiness and dizziness, which are amplified in the tilt and swivel head;decrease in vision in the dark, ripples and / or "fly" in the eyes;discomfort and tension in the temples, the lower part of the back of the head and neck;irritability and fatigue;accompanied by nausea and sometimes vomiting and increase in blood pressure

vascular brain lesions .In these pathologies dizziness may occur as a result of atherosclerotic arterial disease, or as a result of hypertension.Prolonged high blood pressure damages the small arteries of the brain, they become stiff and narrow.As a consequence of these changes is reduced inflow to the human brain oxygenated (arterial) blood, leading to dizziness, noise / ringing in the ears and head. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposits on the inner walls of the artery bulges - plaque, which gradually cover the flow of blood.The most dangerous is the formation of plaques in the arteries of the brain.In the case of cerebrovascular accident dizzy sometimes is the first and only complaint

Dizziness occurs when the following diseases and processes:

- Infectious Diseases , syphilis temporal bone

- Diseases of the ear: otitis media (chronic or acuteinflammation of the middle ear), cholesteatoma, otosclerosis, acoustic neuroma and other

- Cerebrovascular disease

- Traumatic brain injury, trauma of the temporal bone

- Disorders of the cerebellum: the tumor, degeneration

- Nervous system disorders:Parkinson's disease, syringomyelia, multiple sclerosis

- Diseases of the cervical spine, Paget's disease

- Various intoxication: drugs, mercury, drugs, industrial solvents, alcohol

- Somatic diseases: atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, rheumatism, coronary heart disease , anemia, malignancies , metabolic disorders, peptic ulcer

- Mental illness

Diagnostics dizziness

Since the list of disease states and disorders vertigo is really huge,to determine the exact cause of vestibular disorders, requires a thorough examination.The first patient is a consulting neurologist and otolaryngologist;if necessary - the therapist, cardiologist, vascular surgeon, an infectious disease specialist, an ophthalmologist.Neurologist addition to visual inspection on a specific neurological symptoms often assigns the temporal bone radiography, the cervical spine, the main vessels Doppler, CT and MRI.The otolaryngologist will examine directly the auditory and the vestibular apparatus.Laboratory diagnosis of purely individual and is appointed on the basis of the detected physical illness.Dizziness is a concomitant symptom of a very large number of diseases, so it is often even after extensive examinations, the cause remains unknown

Vertigo - Treatment

Treatment of vertigo primarily depends on the underlying cause of the disease, and only after his diagnosis carried out the appropriate selection strategytreatment.In case of dizziness on the background of flowing physical illness, to treat first need his name.Appointed antihistamines (Promethazine, Cinnarizine), Phenobarbital, meterazina, Torekan, diazepine, Belloidum, vasodilators (nicotinic acid, Tionikol) and diuretics.In the case of concomitant vertigo vomiting, injection or prescribe elenium Seduxen.In the event of prolonged severe dizziness shown receiving antipsychotics (haloperidol).To improve the blood circulation is shown receiving such cardiovascular drugs as Memoplant, Cavinton, Sermion

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