influenza in adults
influenza in adults - this is the most common disease of an infectious nature, the occurrence of which in the world, according to statistics annually exposed to 1 billion people.Flu in adults is classified as heavily flowing infections, as its effects are not limited to short-term rise in temperature and nonspecific pain in the muscles and / or head, and can cause the development of severe viral pneumonia, a high level of mortality.
Currently, infectious disease assess severity of influenza epidemics in adults not so much on the number of registered cases, as in terms of "mortality" in the course of the epidemic, which in some countries exceed the level of 40 thousand. Man.This high level of mortality from influenza in adults is largely due to the fact that the severity of the disease contributes to the aggravation of the background of chronic pathologies that are often available in adult patients.
adults face when a flu epidemic suffer less, because their bodies have
Causes of influenza in adults
flu in adults is triggered by a virus infecting organism genus Influenzavirus, which belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae.Virologists worldwide use etiologic classification of influenza in adults, each of which forms caused by three types of influenza virus."Type" means a clear set of virus antigens exhibiting moderately pronounced immunogenicity.
specific feature of influenza virus in adults is their exposure to changes in the composition of antigens, which can carry a partial or full of character ("drift" and "Shift").
result "shift" is the appearance of antigens of the different subtypes of the influenza virus in adults.This antigenic variability of the parameters of the influenza virus in adults contributes to the sudden appearance of epidemics.The minimum variation has the flu virus in the adult category C, so the spread of the virus is almost never develop the epidemic.
Inhibition of influenza virus in adults occurs immediately after exposure to various kinds of disinfectants, as the virus is not sustainable.
flu in adults, as well as other viral pathology is a result of the spread of the pathogen from the source of infection in the body.The source of the flu in adults is a sick adult or child who has observed overt or covert clinical manifestations.Maximum infectiousness occurs during the first day of the disease.
Morbidity flu in adults, usually accompanied by a sustained release of the virus, the causative agent.Latent virus carrier for the flu in adults is not typical.
main method of spread of the virus, the causative agent of influenza in adults is an aerosol, although recently noted a higher incidence of infectious disease contact-household transmission method of the virus.
flu in adults is classified as infectious pathologies profile, which are ubiquitous and are prone to the development of epidemic outbreaks, covering a significant number of the adult population.
maximum incidence occurs in autumn and winter, but sporadic outbreaks of influenza in adults develop at any time of the year.The death rate from the flu in adults is less than 5%, and the leading cause of death prevalent bacterial complications.
Lightning fast spread of the flu in adults is due to a short incubation period of the virus, and the virus spread by aerosol.
With flu in adults is not characteristic of damage to the lung parenchyma, in this connection, the flu virus is almost never becomes a cause of viral pneumonia.
Signs and symptoms of influenza in adults
flu in adults is contagious pathology with a short incubation period of the virus, not exceeding three days.Influenza adults generally experience mild or moderate form, but when attached bacterial infection can be observed and severe morbidity.
the basis of clinical symptoms of influenza in adults laid manifestation of one of the three symptom: intoxication, catarrhal or hemorrhagic.
leading manifestations of influenza in adults are the symptoms of intoxication of the organism, which are keen for a swift.In the beginning of the flu in adults develops fever febrile type, accompanied by severe fever.Adult patients infected with influenza virus in the onset of the disease complain of diffuse severe headache with predominant localization in the temporal region, increasing weakness.The development of microcirculatory disorders in the muscle fibers in patients with influenza appear pain throughout the body, dizziness, and nonspecific pain in the joints.
fever reaches its maximum development to the second day of the flu, and then an adult patient has been a gradual decrease in temperature.Headache in influenza in adults in intensity may vary considerably and in some cases accompanied by neurological disorders.
objective signs of flu in adults is flushing of the skin on the face and conjunctiva eyes, dry skin and sclera.
a few days from the beginning of influenza in adults observed adherence catarrhal symptoms syndrome, which can sometimes be absent.Pathognomonic signs "catarrh" the flu in adults is nasal congestion, dry, sore throat and pain in the oropharynx during swallowing.Cough with the flu in adults is very intense, so often accompanied by vomiting and severe muscle pain in the upper quadrant.
manifestations of degenerative myocardial damage is muted heart sounds on auscultation of the heart and systolic murmur at the apex.Specific signs of intoxication myocardial the flu in adults is tachycardia and hypotension.
An objective examination of adult patients who have had a flu catarrhal stage marked redness and swelling of the mucous membrane of the oropharynx.
Exemplary embodiments of influenza in adults observed during epidemics, and at a time when some recorded cases of influenza frequently observed him for atypical.
Manifestations of hemorrhagic symptom of influenza in adults are petechial hemorrhages in the mucosa of the oropharynx and intense nosebleeds that occur in not more than 5% of cases.
acute influenza in adults after a prolonged remission accompanied by the development of asthenic syndrome, which needs medical correction.
diagnosis of influenza in adults in most cases does not cause difficulties for infectious diseases only in the case of the classic course of his clinical picture.In difficult cases, the help for the physician serve a variety of laboratory procedures and virological studies.More recently, laboratory diagnosis of influenza in adults was considered tedious and long procedure, while modern methods allow rapid diagnosis as soon as possible to verify the diagnosis.
Treatment of influenza in adults
Despite the rapid development of pharmaceutical technologies, effective methods of medical treatment of influenza in adults not so much.These non-drug treatment measures, as the use of a large number of fortified foods and garlic, as well as sauna, perhaps, can be attributed only to the auxiliary methods of treatment of influenza in adults due to their ability to reduce the dose infekta that penetrates through the mucous membranes of the respiratory system.
Pharmaceuticals proven effective in eliminating the virus of influenza in adults and advertised quite a bit of money such as echinacea tincture or ascorbic acid were not subjected to randomized trials, and therefore, they can not be one hundred percent guarantee of effectiveness to recommend to patients.
Among funds with pharmacological efficacy in the treatment of influenza in adults should be considered only three groups of drugs.All these funds should be given to the patient at the onset of clinical manifestations.
primarily for drugs with proven efficacy in influenza in adults include interferons.Previously unused leukocyte interferon, but in the present time have greater efficacy of the recombinant interferon preparations in intranasal form ALFARON representative of which is a daily dose of 50 000 IU and Grippferon a daily dose of 10 000 IU / ml.Their use in the treatment of adult patients suffering from influenza circuit 5 is thorough.into each nasal passage 5 five times in the course of a day at least five days.
Ingaron used exclusively for adults 2 cap.in each nostril 3 p / day.within five days.
for treatment of influenza in adults permissible use rimantadine, a single dose of 50 mg.Numerous randomized trials have proven the efficacy of rimantadine together with the No-shpoy in the treatment of influenza in adults.
Recently, infectious diseases have become widely used interferonogen, bright representative is Arbidol 0.2 g four times a day rate of not less than five days.Also, sufficient effectiveness in inhibiting influenza virus in adults has Amiksin when administered orally at a daily dose of 60 mg in a specific pattern.
However, the only pathogenetically substantiated by medical treatment of influenza in adults is the appointment of neuraminidase inhibitors "Relenza", which is used exclusively for adults.Oral administration of Relenza must be carried out no later than two days from the onset of clinical manifestations.Among the beneficial effects of the drug should be noted its ability to reduce the duration of the febrile period.Average Relenza effective dose is 4 mg per 1 kg of patient weight divided into two steps.As a rule, receiving Relenza in adult patients suffering from influenza does not cause adverse reactions, but in some cases, infectious diseases recorded skin rashes and light neuropsychiatric complication profile.
appointed by an inexperienced doctor antibiotic for the flu does not have any beneficial effects in the treatment of the patient, since the flu is extremely viral nature.Another thing is complicated course of influenza in adults, which occurs when a bacterial component.In this situation, the advisability of appointing an antibacterial drug depends on the specificity of the bacterial flora in view of its sensitivity.Severe complications for influenza should immediately be subjected to medical treatment, and the drug of choice in respect of antimicrobial therapy is any antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action type Sumamed 500 mg per day for three days.
influenza in adults - a doctor will help ?In the presence or suspected development of influenza in adults should immediately consult a doctor such as an infectious disease specialist, internist.