Prevention of influenza
Prevention of influenza - a set of measures of various pathogenetic orientation, effect of which is aimed at preventing a possible human infection with influenza virus, as well as reducing the risk of complications of influenza.
for adult and child population groups developed three areas of infectious disease prevention of influenza, including specific vaccinations, chemoprophylaxis and compliance with basic hygiene standards.
urgent need for implementation of prevention of influenza in different layers of the population due to the increasing incidence of this disease is severe, leading to lasting health disorder that is not only medical, but the social and economic problems.
Prevention of influenza in children
Perhaps for every parent is characterized by a desire to protect the child from the development of any disease, influenza and even more so that in childhood differs severe.Prevention of child seasonal influenza is the primary task of infectious diseases
fundamental direction in the prevention of influenza in children a respect for non-specific prevention measures in the form of compliance with the rules of hygiene.Due to the fact that the child's age category is widespread transmission of the virus by contact-household, parents should be sure from an early age to teach a child to regular hand washing with soap and water.
common mistake parents is to keep children in a high temperature without access of fresh air.Dry and hot air is an ideal environment for the spread of influenza virus, therefore a prerequisite for the prevention of influenza is regularly airing the room, even in the cold season.
In a situation where the child is living with an adult suffering from the flu, be sure to necessary to use personal protective equipment in the form of a gauze bandage, which should be changed at least than 1 time in 2 hour.
best preventive way to protect children against the flu is the observance of a healthy lifestyle as a regular night's sleep, walking in the fresh air, a balanced diet, lack of psycho-emotional outbursts.
specific preventive measures in the form of pediatric vaccination are the most effective, however, children under the age of six-month forbidden to use influenza vaccine.
in the application of herbal immunomodulators in children there are different views, but most pediatricians and infectious disease specialists do not welcome the use of these drugs as prophylaxis of influenza.
To prevent the spread of influenza virus in closed areas where there is a large concentration of children, use spray volatile production in the form of essential oils, as well as the infusion of garlic.
in respect of infants the best way to prevent influenza is to promote breastfeeding, since breast milk contains the maximum concentration of substances with protective properties.
very important preventive measure in childhood flu is to maintain the increased importance in the area.This goal can be achieved in several ways: via a regular wet cleaning, salt spray, and using special moisturizers.
good disinfecting effect for the elimination of viral particles in the air has kvartsevanie mode is selected in accordance with the model area of the premises and the UV lamp.It should be noted that the determination of a child in a room where the air is made kvartsevanie may negatively affect his state of health as a damaging effect on the retina.
children regularly attend kindergarten or other educational institutions, should pay special attention to the prevention of flu, and preventive actions should be carried out not only by parents at home, but the staff of the institution.Nurse kindergarten in the period of high incidence of influenza in the morning have to inspect every child for the presence of symptoms of influenza and in case of those to isolate the sick child.Himself personnel kindergarten or school should also be wary of the existing manifestations of influenza, as totally unacceptable is the finding of an adult patient in the same room with their children.
to immunize children against the flu at different ages are different vaccines.For children from three years shows the use of a live intranasal vaccine allantoic 0.5 mg, and children after the age of sixteen applied subcutaneous administration of inactivated vaccine twice with an interval of 1 month.
most favorable time for the vaccination of children considered to be in October.After the introduction of live influenza vaccine in the body play a weakened natural infection, stimulating humoral and cellular immune mechanisms, thus creating a wide range of immunity.After the introduction of the vaccine, some children may be a development of the catarrhal symptoms of low intensity that did not require medical intervention.
Vitaminoprofilaktika, as part of the general non-specific preventive measures in childhood influenza, should be applied consistently.For this purpose, you can use either a complex multivitamin preparation, respecting the age dosage (Kiddie formaton 1 tablet 1 p / d).Despite the fact that pharmacists are currently denied the fact of the positive effect of vitamin C group for the prevention of influenza, pediatricians noted a significant reduction in the incidence of influenza among children, are systematically taking broth hips, which contains high concentrations of this vitamin.
For children with success still applies dibazoloprofilaktika implying acceptance Dibazol course of 10 days at a daily dose of 2 mg.The mechanism of the positive impact Dibazol due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties.
prevention of influenza in adults
most reliable method of preventing infection with influenza is vaccination, after which a person has acquired immunity is developed, mechanisms that protect the body from the development of the disease.Conducting routine annual influenza vaccination contributes to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality from influenza.
influenza vaccines is not used for the complete elimination of influenza and to reduce the risk of death from complications of influenza.Infektsionistu allocated so-called risk group for complications of influenza, for which absolutely shows the use of vaccination.For this category of persons should include older people and medical staff, as well as people of different ages suffering from a severe chronic somatic diseases.
With special attention should be paid to vaccine-pregnant women, especially in the later stages.Due to the fact that the recent increase in cases of pregnant women with complicated forms of influenza, as well as the emergence of situations lethal, more and more countries resorting to the mandatory vaccine-this category of persons with inactivated influenza vaccine
Experience with vaccines is overfifty years old, so it is an indisputable fact of their positive effect in preventing influenza.Most healthy people tolerate the vaccine, but in some cases there may be adverse reactions include headache, body aches, weakness, subfebrile fever and local skin reactions at the site of the injection, the duration of which is not more than two days.
to avoid the development of severe irreversible adverse reactions, the duty of every person is to prevent the physician of a history of allergy.Absolute contraindications for influenza vaccination is an allergic reaction to chicken protein in history, as well as acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by intoxication syndrome.
Nonspecific prevention of influenza is to observe basic rules of hygiene.Preventive measures have been developed taking into account the pathogenetic mechanisms of transmission of the influenza virus.Thus, the stability of the influenza virus in the air is not more than eight hours, and in the processing of contaminated surfaces antiseptic agents there is an instantaneous elimination of viruses.
The immediate preventive measures during the flu is to limit any communication with others a sick person, and treatment of hand any substance, has an antiseptic effect.In addition to regular wet cleaning should have regular access fresh cool air into the room in which the patient is a person with influenza.
When using disposable masks should be noted that the effectiveness of protection against influenza viruses is not more than two hours, after which the mask should be replaced by a new one.Repeated use of the mask used is the most common cause of the rapid spread of the influenza virus.The effectiveness of a barrier method for preventing influenza, which include the use of gauze bandage is 80%.Also, be sure it must be ensured that the entire surface of the mask fits snugly against the mouth and nose, as the only way she would be able to effectively protect against ingress of contaminated liquid droplets.
drugs for the prevention of influenza
With regard to drug prevention of influenza should be noted that to implement it used chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat acute stage of influenza.Virologists and infectious disease specialists are unanimous in their opinion that the most effective and reliable way of prevention is vaccination.
Among antiviral drugs used in the prevention of influenza in people of different ages, is widely used: Rimantadine, Oseltamivir and interferon inducers.
Drug prevention of flu with rimantadine has a high efficiency rate exceeding 70%.Medicines for the prevention of influenza in some cases are shown and those immunized at having an increased risk of complications of the infection.Also in the first two weeks after vaccination, the patient should be advised to use rimantadine, because in these times in human form type-specific immune mechanisms.In a situation where a person is contraindicated the use of vaccination as the main event for the prevention of influenza should be given antiviral drugs such as rimantadine.All
prevention of influenza should begin during the registration of the first cases of influenza in hospitals in various fields.To this end, we recommend the use of oral antiviral drugs, not only for patients but also health workers in order to avoid the possibility of transmission of the virus, the causative agent for people with increased risk of complications.
Following a randomized study on the determination of the effectiveness and safety of rimantadine for influenza prevention has been proven that this drug, in comparison with other antiviral agents, has minimal side effects, which are not comparable with high antiviral efficacy.The only drawback prevention of influenza with the use of rimantadine is the formation of viral resistance to the antiviral effect of the active ingredient.
Application rimantadine allowed adult persons and children after the age of seven in a daily dose of 100 mg of the course at least 30 days.The level of the maximum daily dose in pediatric patients is 150 mg.
Currently pharmacologists developed a new dosage form rimantadine, can be used for prevention of influenza in children older than 1 year.Scheme chemoprevention in this case is the oral syrup at a daily dose of 30 mg, which is 15 ml.The maximum allowable dosage of rimantadine in Pediatrics considered a 5 mg / kg.
similar to rimantadine of pharmacological action is Adapromin antiviral drug at a dose of 100 mg course of 10 days.
less effective drug treatment against influenza is Arbidol, while its application in prophylactic daily dose of 200 mg has a pronounced positive effect.
relatively new and at the same time an effective specific anti-influenza drug is Oseltamivir.According to a randomized study of prophylactic efficacy of influenza Oseltamivir is comparable to the use of vaccination.This drug is indicated for use in the event of significant presence of influenza virus in the environment, persons at risk for the development of complicated influenza.
Preventive influenza Oseltamivir efficiency is 82%.Currently, infectious disease developed several schemes prophylactic use Oseltamivir.So, in relation to persons in contact with influenza patients should be applied weekly prophylaxis of influenza, while the course of the preventive use of the drug during the epidemic can reach one and a half months.
daily dose of Oseltamivir for prevention of influenza in individuals of adult age group is 75 mg.A feature of the pharmacological action Oseltamivir is that its efficiency is observed only in the period of dosing.
Drugs prevention of influenza categories interferons have the ability to activate the substances that inhibit viral replicative capacity.Due to the fact that this effect on interferons produce all types of viruses, their use is limited not only the prevention of influenza and other viral diseases.This group of drugs is represented by several trade names, each of which has its own particular use.Thus, the use of native leukocyte interferon involves frequent instillation of the nose at a dose of 5 drops in each nostril.Viferon manufactured as an ointment, which should be applied to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity twice daily rate not less than one month.
most common representative of the group of interferons is Grippferon, whose action is intended to prevent the replication of influenza viruses.Positive properties Grippferon is no habituation effect, its applicability to persons of any age, not excluding pregnant women.
Grippferon applied topically in the form of nasal drops of 3000 IU for adults twice a day prophylactic course of 7 days.Single Grippferon dosage for children is 1 000 IU, and the daily dose should not exceed 5000 IU.In order to maximally distribute medication on the nasal mucosa, should be carried out after instillation massage nostrils of a few minutes.
By interferon preparation containing no human blood components, is a recombinant gamma interferon, which, in addition pronounced antiviral, has also a strong immunomodulatory effect.For the purpose of the prevention of influenza should be instilled Ingaron daily in each nostril 2 drops in the morning.
interferon inducers belong to the category of natural or synthetic drugs that trigger the synthesis of endogenous interferon, thereby providing anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect.
for adults category of persons prophylactic tilorona applied in a daily dose of 125 mg 1 time in 7 days course of 6 weeks.