Malignant tumors



Leukemia photo Leukemia - is hematological malignancies, which is a tumor disease, a characteristic displacement of normal, healthy germs of the hematopoietic system.The leukemia originates in the peripheral blood cells and / or bone marrow.Given the morphological features cancer cells, this tumor disease is divided into two forms, such as acute and chronic.

for acute forms of leukemia characterized by poorly differentiated (blast) cells, while chronic leukemia - the bulk of the malignant cells is represented by such forms as the mature plasma cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes and erythrocytes.Thus, the duration of the illness is not considered fundamental to the separation of the pathology of acute or chronic leukemia.Therefore, the first form of cancer never develops into the second.

Leukemia is characterized by the initial germination in bone marrow cells and then slowly proceeds to the process of replacing healthy blood formation of germs.So, this is what leads to a sharp decrease in hematopoi

etic cells that cause increased bleeding, frequent bleeding, lowered immunity and connection of various complications of infectious etiology.

When leukemia observed spread of metastases, which are accompanied by leukemic infiltrates in many somatic organs and lymph nodes.Thus, they develop variations that clog blood vessels of malignant cells, causing complications necrotizing properties and heart attacks.

Leukemia causes

Currently, the exact reasons for participating in the development of leukemia have not been established.There are suggestions that the source of the disease cells are mutants of bone marrow, which are formed at different stages of hematopoietic stem cells.These mutations occur in various prior cells such as lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis.These mutations can be provoked by ionizing radiation, unfavorable heredity, exposure to different types of carcinogens.At present, there is evidence of increased frequency of occurrence of leukemia among people who were exposed to benzene and those patients who received cytotoxic drugs.These are both immunosuppressants Mustargen, Leykeran, Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide and Sarkozolin.

known cases of myeloid leukemia and acute form erythremic myelosis after applying long-term treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma and macroglobulinemia Vapdenstrema.

alleged role in the formation of leukemia given to hereditary defects of the lymphatic and myeloid tissues.There is also a description of the observations that speak of dominant and recessive inheritance of chronic leukemia.In addition, among certain ethnic groups, there is a low incidence of this pathology, and among others - increased.Typically, in such cases, leukemia itself is not inherited, but detected in chromosomal instability, which predisposes initial change of myeloid or lymphatic cells in leukemic transformation.

Using chromosomal analysis determined that any type of in leukemia throughout the body settles clone of cancer cells, i.e.descendants of only one cell mutant.A genotype unstable state leukemic cells leads to the formation of new clones, of which remain only the autonomous.This contributes to the livelihoods of the body, and even the effects of medicinal products.This phenomenon is due to progression of leukemia and his inability to control the flow of cytostatics.

Leukemia symptoms

disease can begin with a sudden appearance of weakness in the body, common symptoms of malaise, rise in body temperature with a possible simultaneous development of angina.

Leukemia is also characterized by severe form of anemia or bleeding diathesis, which are peculiar to the subcutaneous or mucosal bleeding.On examination, the patient, show an increase in varying degrees of lymph nodes, liver and spleen.It is also characterized by frequent forms of skin hemorrhages.They can be shown and stomatitis, sore throat, and necrotic etiology.

In studies in the laboratory can be observed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and the number of white blood cells in leukemia will range from moderate to significant performance gains.Also, in certain types of leukemia in the blood can be detected by blast cells, small amounts of the mature forms of granulocytes, indicating that the leukemic failure.

Very often join complications such as cerebral hemorrhage, bleeding of a different nature and infectious diseases, septic properties.

In addition, symptoms of the disease will largely depend on the stage and form of leukemia.So at the beginning of the disease, patients generally do not impose specific complaints.They can be when viewed from a single lymph node enlargement, as well as the spleen and liver.The blood can be seen a moderate increase in white blood cells, but in the bone marrow is determined lymphoid metaplasia.Thrombocytopenia and anemia did not identify.

When deployed on the stage found signs of a vast increase in the lymph nodes and spleen significantly.In the blood - leukocytosis with lymphocytosis, and platelets, and red blood cells moderately reduced.

terminal stage leukemia is mainly characterized by an increase in the spleen and lymph nodes from joining the symptoms of hemorrhagic diathesis, thrombocytopenia and anemia.It reveals a symptom of hemolysis, which is accompanied by jaundice of the skin, increased bilirubin (indirect) and the increase in anemia.Very often develop recurrent pneumonia, cellulitis, and soft tissue pyoderma.Typically, from such complications or progressive intoxication character comes lethal for the patients.

In chronic forms usually skipped the onset of leukemia.Only when a random inspection of a physician or medical examination of the patient to detect changes in the formula of blood, which is characterized by leukocytosis and neytrofilёz and education myelocytes.The study of the material of the bone marrow myeloid metaplasia help to identify the type.To all the common symptoms of leukemia in the painful condition joins the bones when they are tapped.

Leukemia may occur in waves, ie,exacerbation are replaced by remissions and vice versa.During exacerbations of weakness is sharply increased, the temperature begins to rise, reduced hemoglobin and reappears hemorrhagic diathesis.The most important feature of the crisis at the moment is the appearance of leukemia blast cells in the blood of the peripheral system.Then, growing anemia and thrombocytopenia, and spleen becomes much larger dimensions.There are complications in the form of a septic nature and bleeding, from which many patients die.

Acute leukemia

This malignant anomaly refers to a heterogeneous group of cancer pathologies of the hematopoietic system, iehaemoblast which manifest primary forms of bone marrow involvement immature blood cells (blasts) with subsequent displacement of the elements in the healthy tissues and organs.All acute forms of leukemia are considered to be clonal, as are formed from a single cell, subjected to mutations.The clinical course of the disease, the treatment and its effectiveness, as well as forecasting largely due to immature cells belonging to a specific hematopoietic system and their degree of differentiation.

acute form of Leukemia refers to a rare disease and represents about 3% of the tumor human pathologies.But among the Leukemia acute leukemia is the first place in the detection rate.This disease occurs in a ratio of 5: 100,000 per year and about 75% relative to the adult population.But the predominance of myeloid leukemia type of lymphoid - a 6: 1.Lymphoblastic leukemia observed in 85% of children, and after forty years, on the contrary, 80% of patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia form.

acute form of leukemia is one of the diseases that develop as a result of damage to the genetic material of blood cells, which leads to the molecular level, to violations of controlling the cell cycle, changes in processes and products of transcription of certain proteins.The result is an accumulation of abnormal cells, but the specific reasons for the formation of acute leukemias and has not been clarified.

There are certain predisposing factors that significantly increase the risk of this disease.For example, patients with chromosomal instability more likely to develop acute leukemia.Among these diseases distinguished: Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, congenital agranulocytosis, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Bloom, Fanconi anemia syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld,null, celiac disease and Down's syndrome.

Evidence of viral etiology of the disease in adults relate only to the T-cell type.This form of leukemia is found mainly in Japan and the population of the Caribbean.

There is also a link between ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and the development of acute leukemia.Some studies suggest that 20% of acute myeloid leukemia is a result of smoking.Benzene, in large concentrations, cause leukemogenic effect on the human body.Upon receipt of the treatment beam irradiation in combination with Mustargenom, the risk of an acute form of leukemia is increased to 10%.Also mutagenic effect possess drugs such as etoposide, Erokarbazin, lomustine, chlorambucil, and cyclophosphamide Teniposide.

relapses of acute leukemia in the 85% observed for ten years after termination of therapy.

This malignancy diagnosed only after the detection of blast cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.In recent decades, it has been widely used to develop and refine new techniques in the diagnosis of acute leukemia.These include immunophenotyping markers using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, molecular-biological analysis of the changed chromosomes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, as well as analysis of chromosomes.

Any form of acute leukemia is characterized as common features that are common to all leukemia, and essential features that affect the course of the disease, treatment selection and effectiveness.

In all acute leukemia observed granulocytopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia;infiltration of the various organs and the production of cytokines.Start of acute leukemia include: a significant rise in temperature, severe weakness, intoxication, severe bleeding and infection.

elderly patients appears angina, heart rhythm is disturbed as a consequence of hospitalization in the department of cardiology.

On examination of patients objective symptoms may not occur.Often, however, revealed an increase in peripheral lymph nodes, liver and spleen.It is mainly observed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but sometimes when myelomonoblastic form.In addition, the observed hyperplasia of the gums, skin infiltration, hemorrhagic syndrome with varying degrees of severity, bone pain, neurological symptoms and arthralgia.

in the blood is determined trёhrostkovaya cytopenia: or leukocytosis, or anemia or leukopenia.Primary cells can be 90% of white blood cells, or totally determined.The diagnosis of acute leukemia becomes apparent after morphological confirmation bone marrow cells or peripheral blood for the presence of cancerous abnormalities.

In acute leukemia, there are also extramedullary lesion character.Neuroleukemia deserves special attention, which arises as a result of metastasis of tumor cells in the membranes of the brain and spinal cord.For neuroleukemia typical meningeal hypertensive syndrome, which is manifested by vomiting, persistent headache, lethargy, swelling of the optic nerve, strabismus, Kernig syndrome, neck stiffness.Acute leukemia extramedullary properties may still affect the skin, retina, gums, ovaries, testicles, lymph nodes, lungs, intestines, heart muscle.

Acute leukemias can proceed in several stages, such as the manifestation of remission, and then relapse.The debut of the disease begins with an expression of bone marrow suppression, hemorrhagic syndrome and infectious complications.Mostly acute leukemia manifests symptoms and diagnosis is made by chance.

The main goal in the treatment of acute leukemia is to eradicate leukemic clone of cells, restoring the blood, to achieve a long and disease-free survival of patients.All this is achieved by modern methods of treatment using antitumor myelotoxic agents with which reduces the volume of malignant masses, while making bone marrow aplasia.

Leukemia blood

This pathological changes in the blood, called leukemia, leukemia, or blood cancer.It is a clonal neoplastic disease of the hematopoietic system.Leukemia blood enters the large group of pathologies which differ in their etiology.

causes of leukemia blood are not fully clarified.But medical scientists admit the assumption that the development of this disease is not a small role played by ionizing radiation, smoking, certain drugs and carcinogens.

When leukemia blood malignant clone is derived from immature hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow.Depending on disease progression leukemia blood can flow in two forms: acute and chronic.

Leukemia acute forms the blood - a disease that is developing quite rapidly, in which uncontrolled immature blast cells accumulate in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.This leads to disruption of the ability to produce healthy blood-forming cells.Thus, a rapid process of replacement of abnormal bone marrow cells.

chronic form of leukemia, the blood can flow over the years, and completely asymptomatic, and in the future to cause complications as the acute form.

main symptoms of leukemia blood is prolonged rise in temperature for no apparent reason, the occurrence of frequent infections, swollen lymph nodes, increased bleeding gums, joint pain, and others.

to diagnose leukemia blood used different methods.These include detailed analysis of the blood, biopsy and aspiration of bone marrow cytogenetic studies properties.

The treatment of leukemia, the blood will depend largely on the type of disease.But basically it involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation irradiation, high-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation.

childhood leukemia

Based on studies of foreign scientists-physicians such diseases as leukemia children, observed in half of all cases of malignant pathologies.The disease is considered to be one of the main causes of death among children.

childhood leukemia is also called white blood disease, because it is the "white cells", white blood cells have a protective role in the body.But in leukemia, these cells do not mature until the end, so do not perform this function.

At the moment, the exact causes of leukemia in children is not known.There are suggestions that the disease is caused by mutations, the actions of some viruses and chemicals.There are also statements of some authors that leukemia in children may induce hereditary and cytogenetic factors.Therefore, more often this pathology can be seen in children who suffer from Down's syndrome.In addition, a hereditary factor shows that identical twins are sick with leukemia more often than dvuhyaytsovye.

acute form of leukemia in children is one of the leading places, unlike the chronic form.Among the most common form of leukemia can distinguish acute lymphoid.

Typically, the disease begins suddenly with rapid progression.

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