Lymphoma - an association of the name of several cancers, which tend to hit the lymphatic tissue with enlarged lymph nodes, and the defeat of many physical bodies, which are peculiar to uncontrolled accumulation of abnormal lymphocytes. Lymphoma, like all solid tumors, manifested by the presence of primary forms of tumor focus.However, lymphoma is not only able to metastasize, and distributed to all systems of the body with the simultaneous development of the state, which reminds lymphocytic leukemia.Furthermore, there is no increase lymphoma nodes.She initially may develop in various organs (lungs, brain, stomach, intestines).This refers to extranodal lymphoma forms.
Lymphoma is of two kinds.This is a large group of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.On microscopic examination, found specific Berezovsky-Sternberg cells, which indicate the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, and if they are absent, the disease is non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
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There is speculation the relationship between certain risk factors and the likelihood of these pathologies in a certain category of people.This group includes people who were sick or ill close relatives lymphomas;suffering from diseases of the autoimmune nature;undergone transplants of stem cells or kidney;working with carcinogenic substances;infected with Epstein-Barr virus, AIDS, hepatitis C, human T-lymphotropic virus type, and;Available from the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.Thus, infection of the body by various bacteria and viruses, the nature of the professional activity may be the cause of lymphoma in humans.
also greatly increased risk of the disease in people with weakened immunity due to his congenital or acquired defect.
All clinical manifestations of the disease will depend on its type and location.Hodgkin's lymphoma includes five kinds of malignant pathologies and almost thirty subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Lymphoma first kind of different variety of clinical symptoms, which are characterized by different types of lesions lymph nodes and organs.All the symptoms of the disease is divided into general and local manifestations of the disease.Almost every third patient with this pathology reveal an overall picture of lymphoma, which are the rise in temperature, profuse night sweats, weakness throughout the body, pain in the joints and bones, fatigue, weight loss, headaches and itching of the skin.One of the earliest signs of the disease is a change in temperature in the body.
Lymphoma at the beginning of the progression is characterized by the fact that the temperature is kept at subfebrile, and the characteristic increase is beginning to happen in the evening.As a result of lymphoma continues to grow as the process progresses, then the temperature reaches 39-40 degrees, and at night, patients experience fever, which goes into sweating.
One symptom of lymphoma is considered to be the general weakness of the patient, which reduces the ability to work and may appear before the diagnosis.
Lymphoma skin appears as a characteristic symptom of pruritus, with varying degrees, which may appear long before the destruction of the lymph nodes and.Therefore, it can be a long time the only evidence of the disease.Itching is a generalized spread through the body of the patient with the ability to localize in some parts, such as the anterior surface of the thoracic, on the head, limbs, including the feet and hands.
On examination, patients manage to diagnose various lymph nodes with diverse localization.Almost 90% of pathological lesions are above the diaphragm, and the remaining 10% are marked in the lower limfokollektorov.
Typically, lymphoma 70%, which relates to the Hodgkin's lymphoma, a manifest increase in cervical lymph nodes, which are characterized by an elastic consistency, no cohesion among themselves and with the surrounding tissue.On palpation they are absolutely painless, and skin tumor conglomerate is not changed, no redness and infiltration.Also, 25% of lymphoma can affect the supraclavicular lymph nodes, which basically are never large.About 13% are lymph nodes in the armpit that his anatomical structure contribute to the rapid spread of the pathological process in the mediastinal parts of the lymphatic system and the lymph nodes located under the chest muscles with the transition to the mammary gland.
lymphoma mediastinal lymph node is shown at 20%.Clinically it is manifested not only pathological changes in the lymph nodes, but also the process of squeezing and sprouting in other organs and tissues.At the time of onset of the disease showed a slight dry cough that is accompanied by pain in the thoracic region.These pains can be in different locations, and show constant and dull, which may increase during deep breaths or cough.Sometimes patients complain of disturbing their pain in the heart, thrusting nature and bursting feeling in the thoracic region.This is due to the increase in the lymph nodes, which are beginning to put pressure on the nerves and the heart, or germination.In this case, mediastinal lymphoma may spread to the pericardium, lungs and bronchi.After that, patients feel little shortness of breath that develops during exercise or normal walking.And with the further progression of the disease, ie,growth of lymph nodes, dyspnea is much enhanced.If the mediastinal lymph nodes increased to a considerable size, it can develop vena cava syndrome in the upper part.Although there are cases of asymptomatic course of this disease, which is diagnosed by chance during a planned X-ray examination of the chest.
Retroperitoneal lymph nodes are rare and account for about 8% of the cases.Most of these lesions cause the development of gastric lymphoma.Onset of the disease is characterized by an asymptomatic course and painting with only a slight increase in the lymph nodes in this area, there are pain and numbness in the lumbar, bloating and constipation.The consumption of alcohol, even in small amounts of pain in the area a few worse.
lymphoma that affects the lymph nodes in pahovobedrennyh and iliac areas occurs in 3% of cases, but has poor forecasting and malignant course.Changes that occur in these lymph nodes, causing cramping or persistent abdominal pain.Frequent signs of these lymph nodes is disturbed, heaviness in the limbs, decreased skin sensitivity, and inside the front hip, anti-inflammatory therapies feet.
Sometimes doctors diagnose lymphoma of the spleen, which is considered a rare disease with a relatively benign course and a high life expectancy of patients, when compared to other forms.Lymphoma may involve the spleen in the neoplastic process in 85% of cases.With the defeat of the pathology of the body, it is noted an increase, as the only sign of the disease, which is determined by ultrasound or by radionuclide studies.However its normal dimensions are not that there are no changes, or vice versa.
Lymphoma lungs in primary form is rare, however, some authors have questioned its origin.However, 30% of the light affects the anomaly and attached to cancer.Malignant cells can enter the lung tissue via the lymph or blood from lesions in the formation lymphadenitis direct transition process of mediastinal lymph nodes in the lung tissue sections.Clinically it is manifested cough, shortness of breath, pain in the chest and in some cases hemoptysis.If lymphoma captures lung tissue in limited quantities, there is a slight cough, and all other signs are completely absent.The defeat of the pleura, which is accompanied by pleural effusion is characterized by specific changes in the lungs.
In about 30% of cases of lymphoma affects the bone.There lymphoma with primary and secondary bone disease resulting from the germination of lesions or structures surrounding the blood.The most common lymphoma in the process involves the defeat of the spine, then the ribs, sternum and pelvis.It is very rare to observe pathological changes of long bones and skull bones.But if this happens, patients complain of pain characteristic.When the tumor in the spine, pain radiates character appear to increase with pressure on the vertebrae.At the lower thoracic vertebrae and verhnepoyasnichnogo departments appear numbness in the legs and twitching.With further progression of the process revealed paralysis and paresis of the lower extremities, as well as violations of the functions, which are located in the pelvis.
Lymphoma 10% affects the liver.A pathological organ damage can be either single or plural.Symptoms of these changes manifested as nausea, heartburn, heaviness in the right part of the hypochondria and unpleasant taste in the mouth.In these patients revealed signs of jaundice of different origin, and this exacerbates the prognosis of the disease.
Lymphoma of the brain is not marked by specific modifications, such lesions are determined in 4% of cases.
Furthermore, there are tumor destruction of other tissues and organs.This can be a lymphoma of the thyroid gland, mammary gland, heart muscle, nervous system.
Lymphoma can occur or aggressive or indolent, but sometimes highly aggressive notes for the rapid spread of a malignant tumor.Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma are characterized by the occurrence of high malignancy.Lymphoma of low malignancy - this indolent for.Forecast of lymphomas characterized by common features.Lymphoma is an aggressive course has more possibilities of recovery, but indolent forms are incurable pathologies.In addition, they are well treated by polychemotherapy, beam radiation and surgery, but, after all, have a pronounced predisposition to relapse, resulting in often comes death.At any stage of the lymphoma can go into diffuse large followed by bone marrow.Such a transition is called Richter's syndrome, which is indicative of survival up to twelve months.
Malignant lymphoma usually first affects the lymph tissue, and then - the bone marrow.This is what distinguishes it from leukemia.
Lymphoma, which refers to the non-Hodgkin group occurs in the peripheral and visceral lymph nodes, thymus, lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx and gastrointestinal tract.Much less it affects the spleen, salivary glands, orbit and other organs.
also happens nodal lymphoma and extranodal.It depends upon where the primary tumor was localized.But as the cancer cells spread rapidly through the body, the malignant lymphoma is characterized by generalized location.
Malignant lymphoma characterized by an increase of one or more lymph nodes;presence of extranodal lesions and common beginning of the pathological process in the form of weight loss, weakness and fever.
by the steps possible to determine the penetration and spread of cancer in the human body.This information helps to make the decision to appoint the appropriate therapeutic treatment program.
On the basis of generally accepted classification of Ann Arbor is divided into four stages of malignant process flow.
first two stages of lymphoma conventionally considered local or local, and the third and fourth - widespread.By the numbers (I, II, III, IV) in patients with the existing three main symptoms (night sweats, fever and weight loss) are added by the letter B, and in the absence - the letter A.
When I-st stage lymphoma tumor process involvedone area of lymph nodes;When
II-nd stage lymphoma affected several areas of the lymph nodes, which are located only on one side of the diaphragm;
At her stage III-lymphoma affects the lymph nodes, localized on both sides of the diaphragm;
When IV-th stage lymphoma spreads to different somatic tissues and organs.When massive lymph node stage to add the symbol H.
This lymphoma is aggressive forms of the disease for which disrupted the structure of lymph nodes and the cancer cells are located in all areas.
B-cell lymphoma refers to one of the most common types of non-Hodgkins lymphoma with high malignancy, various morphological characteristics of the properties, the clinical symptoms and their sensitivity to therapies.This can be explained by the fact that B-cell lymphoma can develop both primary and transformed from zrelokletochnyh non-Hodgkins lymphoma, for example, follicular lymphoma, MALT-lymphoma.Abnormal cells are characterized by phenotypic traits centroblasts immunnoblastov or by expression of B-cell antigens.In 30% of cases cytogenetic abnormality called translocation (14; 8).For B-cell lymphoma occurs reanzhirovka gene (40%) or a mutation (75%).
first two stages of the disease to diagnose manages one third of patients, and the remaining cases occur disseminated in the pathological process involved ekstralimfaticheskie zone.
B-cell lymphoma is derived from immature precursor cells of B-lymphocytes.This disease is of several forms, which include Burkitt lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia etiology, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, immunoblastic large cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, B-lymphoblastic lymphoma predecessor.
B-cell lymphomas are developing with rapid speed.Depending on the localization of different kinds of symptoms appear.In the first place are the enlarged lymph nodes that do not cause pain.They may be formed in the neck, arms, armpits, on the head or in several areas simultaneously.The disease also develops in the cavity, where it is very difficult to determine the increase in the lymph nodes.Then the disease grows in the spleen, liver, bone and brain.
At the same time there is an increase in temperature, weakness, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue.Symptoms in B-cell lymphoma progresses for two - three weeks.If the typical clinical picture requires specialist advice and conduct diagnostic testing to rule out or confirm a diagnosis.
for lymphoma therapy uses traditional methods of cancer treatment, which includes chemotherapy and radiation exposure, and combinations thereof.
When choosing treatments take into account the stage of lymphoma and the risk factors that contribute to the development of the pathological process.The most important risk criteria are changed limfooblasti lesions (more than three);in stage B - the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 mm / h for A stage - 50 mm / h;defeat ekstranodulyarnogo character;extensive mediastinal involvement;at MIT, 0.33;with massive splenomegaly with diffuse infiltration;lymph nodes - more than five centimeters.