bazalioma - a malignant skin lesions.Among all other tumors, basal cell carcinoma sufficiently well to treatment and can result in 100% surge recovery.The main problem of basal cell carcinoma is that it can lead to dysfunction of muscle tissue damage innervation and even damage the integrity of bony structures.Also, the main goal pursued by all physicians onkodermatologu in the study and treatment of patients with basal cell carcinoma - appoint therapy as early as possible to prevent the coarse organic disorders of healthy tissue.
bazalioma equally well affects both men and women.One of the important features of its development is prolonged exposure to strong sunlight and thus a constant burn effects of sunlight on human skin.
basal cell carcinoma of the skin
priori, a basal cell carcinoma was meant cancerous lesions of the skin.This is subject to a list of etiological factors that affect the cells of the epidermis.As a result, developing visual defects of the skin, which ma
visually on the surface of the skin with basal cell carcinoma will appear its various defects.They have a characteristic pink color and a completely different shape.In the later course of these foci of basal cell carcinoma is significantly ulcerate, and changes can take place directly to the bone.
basal cell carcinoma is almost never metastasizes.But it can deeply eat into deep tissue and cause nervous disorders and muscle contraction.Thus, if bazalioma located in areas of the facial area, the further its implementation may impair mimics facial muscles.
This disease is distributed in its clinical form and stage.Among the forms have both species are extremely slow growth, and basal cell carcinoma is very aggressive and rapid spread.Step process similar to the stages of any malignant tumor lesions and has the same principles of differentiation.
It is important to determine the presence of basal cell carcinoma in the early stages, because it affects the productivity of its treatment.Therefore, it is advisable to apply certain diagnostic criteria: dermatoscopy, near the study of the pathological focus through a magnifying glass, cytology material possible tumor.In combination with these methods of investigation, also using additional methods: X-ray of the chest cavity puncture lymph node ultrasound of the abdominal cavity to determine the spread of the lymph nodes.
basal cell carcinoma causes
basal cell carcinoma is primarily a cancer process.So, its development will be subject to all the basic laws of the development of cancer lesions.In cancer cells, which then produce the tumor (ie, are "parent") is very much disturbed the processes of tissue growth.In these cells cease to go through the process, triggering its self-destruction, so there is its uncontrolled division and increase in tumor mass.
Interestingly, it was thanks to the above-described properties of all subtypes of tumors are so-called processes with giperbioticheskoy capacity (capacity for high growth, division and an increase in the total mass of abnormal tissue).Such neoplastic pathological cells can occur due to various factors.The sheer number: they include various chemical and physical agents, certain disease and even viruses.But whatever factors of occurrence and place of occurrence of cancer tissue, the process of its appearance is almost the same.
first in a cell changes occur at the level of the processes of its regulation - it loses the ability to self-destruction (apoptosis).Normally, each cell has its own limit, which controls the number of divisions: Within this limit, the cell divides the programmed amount of time, and then dies.Each cell that limit depends on its features, its function and the function of structures in which it is included.But the tumor cell is programmed "limit of life" is absent and the tap-hole becomes fully immortal.
Later she starts hard to share.That is the speed of its division and the formation of new subsidiaries of tumor cells depends on the "aggressiveness" (the ability to spread rapidly, and the growth of) tumors.These processes have two periods: the first with a slow current, and a second, faster.The first stage of active cancer process starts from the first division of the parent of cancer cells and lasts for 30 of its divisions, while the tumor acquires a weight of about 1 gram.This typically takes about 2-3 months.Further tumors need to increase its weight to approximately 1 kg.However, since tumor cells, thanks to the first step became larger, and the time for this increase in mass requires significantly less - approximately 10 bar (approximately one month).
also another feature of these cells is that they have a very primitive structure.This is because they are born from a single cell have a maternal genetic material and does not complicate soy structure with each division.On the contrary, even it easier.Such processes simplify extremely convenient for a quick birthday tumor - because the simpler structure of the cell, the less time is necessary to its construction, and hence faster develop a sufficient number of pathological tissue.
Also, this fabric is introduced their cells with compromised structure in other tissues and gradually replaces normal tissue of its pathological.This can be explained by one skilled defined process: normal culture cells grown in vitro, divided up until the cells do not come in contact with the vessel walls.After that, the contact formation and growth of the cell culture stops - this process is called contact inhibition.But tumor cells, even bumping into the wall of the tubes continue to divide - however it shows that the physical collision with other cells, they will stop and begin to grow into the tissue.Bumping into the new structure, cancer cells are first destroyed its connective tissue sheath, forming a so-called "loophole" - they cleave its structure and open the way to their relatives.Then these cells or under the pressure of growing mass of cancer tissue "are pressed" in this loophole, or migrate to its own, thanks to the processes of chemical sensitivity (chemotaxis).Incidentally, these invasive processes then cause the manifestation of certain additional clinical symptoms.
addition, in cancer cells and tissues, there is another most notorious ability - these cells have the ability to spread throughout the body and secondary lesions of new tissue structures (as is the spread is known as metastasis).Type of bodies that may be at risk of secondary infection of cancer cells depends on the way in which these cells are distributed throughout the body, for example, via the blood or lymphatic channel.
It is also important to know that the longer divided onkokletki, the malignancy are its descendants.At some point there is a reorganization of the genetic code to improve the corrosive properties of onkokletok: faster division, germination in the fabric and distribution.
When basal cell carcinoma primary maternal onkokletki are epithelial cells.Therefore basal still referred to as epithelial tumors.As a result of the defeat of the epidermis in it formed a special complex of cells: small basic cells of basal cell carcinoma (also known as the modified epidermal cells), which are surrounded by a special prismatic cells.These aggregate divided into separate parts connective tissue sheath.
main reasons that can be a precursor to the appearance of basal cell carcinoma is considered premalignant processes of the skin (keratosis, leukoplakia, xeroderma).In addition they also etiological causes basal cell carcinoma can be certain viruses (especially the herpes virus), exposure to carcinogenic chemicals (arsenic, paraffin derivatives tar), permanent mechanical irritation, trauma and-heat.
Also we must not forget the important role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma prolonged exposure of the skin to sunlight.This reason is the leader in 91% of cases, the appearance of basal cell carcinoma.In most sun exposure can lead to skin lesions neck, face and head.Among the entire solar spectrum, the most dangerous for skin Cancer Plan is radiation in the spectrum.
basal cell carcinoma symptoms
most commonly basal cell carcinoma develops in older people.In addition to its possible presence will indicate the data from the history of the disease: answering questions, the patients will talk about the impact on them of strong solar radiation or exposure to the rays of ionizing radiation.
first on the skin surface appears a little tight, slightly pearlescent "knot."Thanks to its mean he got the name "Pearl".After some time, the knot gets wet, covered with crusts and ulcerated.Under peel easily detected bleeding ulcerated surface.Around this formation formed a dense cushion, which make up subsidiaries "pearl."For the next time, this Ulcerated surface will be more and more deeper inside, forming a crater ulcers.In the latter stages of the whole ulcer becomes thick and does not move with the skin in certain studies.Besides the ulcer has a distinctive bold raid on its bottom and on the surrounding skin clearly show through the vascular network.
Also nodules primary element of basal cell carcinoma can also become a dense, towering plaque or circular spots.The entire morphology of these elements corresponds to his form of basal cell carcinoma, and is characterized by its localization.
With a significant lesion of basal cell carcinoma tissue will be substantial pain and discomfort.Another important symptoms to be certain characteristic localization: most often on the hands, under the hair on the head, on the wing of the nose, temple, around the eyes.
mainly basal cell carcinoma has a slow development and growth - some of its forms can be found on the skin over the years and very slowly and gradually infiltrate the surrounding tissue.
Another feature, unique to basal cell carcinoma is the fact that the primary ulcer is growing in breadth and in depth, acquiring a characteristic "funnel view."
forms and stages of basal cell carcinoma
Stages of development of basal cell carcinoma are determined according to the same system of evaluation, as in other oncological processes.This system is called TNM and consists of three basic principles of assessment staging of the tumor: tumor size (T).On the defeat of the immediate and distant lymph nodes (N) and by the presence / absence of signs of metastasis (M).
According to the size of the tumor lesion (T) of the following types of its course:
Stage Tx - this stage basal cell carcinoma of the process is placed when there is no data about the true size of the lesion, or it is not possible to get them
Stage What - set when in the course ofdiagnostic studies of tumor is not determined.But here I must say that not always the lack of visualization of the tumor indicates a complete absence of cancer process in the body.Therefore, to say that this stage is placed not only in the absence of detection of neoplastic lesions in the absence of a primary tumor
Stage Tis - are basal cell carcinoma has not infiltrate the surrounding tissue.This process is known as preinvasive
Stage T1 - this stage is assigned when the approximate dimensions of a pathological area are less than 2 cm
Stage T2 - is the size of the defeat will range between 2 and end somewhere in the range of 5 cm
Stage T3 -about this stage basal cell carcinoma can talk when its dimensions overcome border 5cm
Stage 4 - at this stage basal cell carcinoma affects to be underneath the structure: subcutaneous fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone
Taking into account the presence or absencechanges in the lymph nodes (N), basalioma takes such steps currents: step Nx, step No and step N1.Stage Nx is similar to that when the size of the tumor: it is exactly the same set if it is impossible to get accurate data about the state of the lymphatic system.Stage No set when regional lymph nodes are not yet impressed already beginning to spread throughout the body, tumor process.Stage N1 put immediately, as soon as the lymph nodes are found even the smallest tumor changes.Classification of stages of basal cell carcinoma of the manifestation of metastasis does not apply, because this cancer pathology does not tend to metastasize.
You can also group these steps in the clinical stage of basal cell carcinoma.
At stage D can be found basalts in the initial of its manifestations, without infiltration of tissues with no lymph node involvement.In step 1, just as the lymph nodes remain completely intact, and the size of the basal cell carcinoma increase may already be manifested slight signs of its implementation in other tissues.In the 2nd stage the size of basal cell carcinoma will grow to 5 cm without lymph node enlargement.Actually, the lymph nodes may possibly be struck only with the third stage of the process, accompanied by a significant lesion of basal cell carcinoma of other tissue structures.On stage 4, they say, when to the described manifestations in step 3 is added to the possible presence of distant metastatic processes.
addition stage and grade of the flow, basal cell carcinoma is divided into a certain number of its subspecies or forms.These forms are classified according to their clinical manifestations and histological structure.Accepted provide basal nodular, superficial basal and sklerodermopodobnuyu basalts.
most common form of basal cell carcinoma is, of course, its nodular form.It is characterized by the appearance of the skin of small nodules pinkish color, which can be grouped in tumor formation up to 2 cm.
Superficial basal cell carcinoma is a spot roundish form of the same pink color with circumscribed margins.Sklerodermopodobnaya form is the most aggressive.In the course of its development on the skin formed dense regions.Hence the name of this form of basal cell carcinoma, due to similar changes in autoimmune disease - scleroderma.This plaque is first slightly rising above the skin, and then gradually pressed inwards and forms of the scar on the skin.In the latter stages at this point may appear ulcer or central part of the plaque will gradually atrophy.
also emit forms of basal cell carcinoma on its localization in the human body.So you can identify basal skin of the trunk or limbs.In addition, there may be a basal cell carcinoma on his nose (one quite common locations) or basal cell carcinoma century, better known as basal cell carcinoma of the eye.
treatment of basal cell carcinoma
main treatment and elimination of tumor cells is based on the following principles: surgical treatment, radiation procedures and the introduction of specialized medical preparations.Most often, these three principles go hand in hand in the treatment of cancer issues.
When bazalioma an important role in the treatment plays its localization.If it is located on the limbs and trunk, the good treatments will microsurgical manipulation: Kholodov or coagulation of its destruction.But at the same time, if the basal cell carcinoma affects the scalp, face, neck, the use of surgical guides at these sites is simply impossible.
Therefore, for the treatment of basaliomas on facial areas using radiation therapy.This kind of therapy is used because the fabric basal cell carcinoma is highly sensitive to the radiation.Besides the irradiation of the surface of tumor manifestations is extremely convenient.