Scabbers - a contagious disease dermatological profile resulting from skin lesions specific parasite, namely scabies.Primary route of infection is the "pin" through the skin of the person who is the bearer of scabs, and this pathology is characterized by a high rate of contagiousness. When first contact with a patient infected with scab, a healthy person early signs of scab appear a week later in the form of various elements of the rash is localized or diffuse.
Experts in the field of skin diseases noted some seasonal scab, iea sharp increase in the index of contagiousness in the autumn-winter period.This correlation is due to the biological needs of the scab pathogen.Thus, in conditions of low temperature and humidity indicators marked a significant intensification of the tick.In summer scab occurs much less frequently sincein the warm period marked sweating in humans, as well as a part of the sweat contains substances with antimicrobial activity.
sole agent of scab as common dermatological disease is a parasite "Sarcoptes scabiei" detection which occurs at the end of the seventeenth century.Scabbers is classified anthroponotic parasitic infections as a possible human infection occurs through skin contact or from an infected scab household items containing mites.In this situation, there is indirect type of pathogen infection scab.The most favorable habitat scabies mite is an environment with high humidity parameters, as in these conditions the parasite can remain active for more than five days.
lowest incidence scab noted in highly developed countries.Risk group for this dermatological disease are children of preschool and school period, due to the lack of immune responses, as well as direct contact with each other under an organized team.
Before considering the pathogenesis of scab, you should pay special attention to the study of the structure and functional activity of the main causative agent of scab - the scabies mite.This parasite is characterized by sexual dimorphism, and the development of scabs more important activity of the female scabies mite, which is just 12 hours after fertilization can lay on the human skin for up to four eggs.Due to the fact that tick saliva contains high concentrations of proteolytic enzymes capable of destroying the keratin, egg-laying process is accompanied by the formation of "intradermal burrows", which is considered the main detection pathognomonic symptoms of the disease.After the initial deposit eggs, the female continues to parasitize on the skin, and within two weeks of her eggs are formed new individuals tick, so scab different rapid progression and continuous flow.
healthy person scab infestation can occur in almost any stage of the disease, and the clinical manifestations of the formation to a greater extent due to the accompanying immune and allergic reaction to the introduction of the parasite.After the direct infection of humans occurs long latency period that can be up to a month, and at this time there is a massive proliferation of the pathogen in the skin.The debut of the disease in the form of pronounced pruritus is observed only after developing adequate allergic reaction of the body in response to the release of waste products directly into the body of the tick skin.In patients suffering from immunodeficiency, clinical manifestations in the form of scabs itch practically not observed because of the impossibility of forming a normal immune and allergic response parasitic defeat of the body.
Due to the fact that education intradermal moves accompanied by a pronounced itching and scratching of the skin, creating favorable conditions for the revitalization obligate microflora with the development of septic complications in the form of pyoderma.Unfortunately, the recovery of patients suffering from scabies, is not accompanied by the formation of stable immune system, so the risk of re-infection of this category of people remains high throughout life.
Symptoms of scabs
main clinical criterion scab is expressed intradermal itching, prone to increased intensity during the evening and night time.However, the onset of the disease usually occurs during the formation of the typical elements of a rash on the body.Not all situations scab accompanied by the formation of specific lesions in the form of papules and vesicles, so a person infected with scabies, a long time can not tie his fortune with this pathology and to seek medical help to the allergist.However, the appearance of pruritus accompanying intradermal leaves no doubt as to the correctness of the diagnosis "scab."
duration of the incubation period of asymptomatic or in each case is different and can vary from one day to two weeks.In this time period a person can not notice absolutely no change the state of their own health, but in that period he was the bearer of a scab and a danger to the people who are with him in close contact.
Scabbers differs considerable polymorphism elements of an eruption, so in some cases, early diagnosis of the disease is difficult, but the detection of pathognomonic "scabbed / itch intradermal moves" in the form of winding lines on the skin, which differ in color from the surrounding tissue, can confidently establish the correct diagnosis evenpending further examination methods.A more detailed examination of parasitic intradermal running in most cases it is possible to visualize the vesicle, which is the body of the tick as a black dot.Another specific symptom scab is a priority localization of elements of an eruption in the projection of the natural folds of the skin, the side surfaces of the upper and lower extremities and trunk.
most frequently manifested scab formation of papules (rash element towering above the surface of the skin) and vesicles (papules containing liquid component), but long-term course of the disease the patient to the fore the elements of the secondary rash of excoriations and hyperkeratosis.Children often develops scab scalp and upper body, and adults more common scab on his hands.
Scabbers on the body is different, and the rapid spread of polymorphism rash, and for the adult patient population is characterized by loss of skin of breast, scrotum, and even the penis.The primary localization of skin changes in the form of papules and vesicles are the hands and the skin occurs when combing the further spread of the pathogen scab, which is concentrated in the elements of the rash.In this regard, priority treatment measures at a scab adequate disinfection treatment not only affected areas of the skin, but also the whole body, as well as underwear and clothing.
Please note that some patients scab may occur in atypical clinical option when even experienced fails to detect parasitic moves.This form scab occurs in a situation where human infection did not occur by direct contact with females of the pathogen on the skin, and its larvae.In addition, there is an atypical variant of scab among carefully observe good personal hygiene, as during frequent bathing of the pathogens are mechanically removed from the surface of the skin.
Very rarely there may be an option psevdokorosty in which infected ticks comes from an infected animal, and clinical symptom in this situation will be submitted to a severe skin itch.This pathology does not require specific medical intervention, and clinical manifestations of self-leveled after the elimination of contact with sick animals.
Complicated scab different accession purulent infections, and therefore, the patient noted an increase of intoxication syndrome and the development of pyoderma.
atypical variants of the scab is a scabious limfoplaziya in which elements of the rash presents nodules pink color, reach two centimeters in diameter, and are accompanied by intense itching.Pathognomonic symptom that distinguishes this form scabs from other dermatological pathologies profile is to detect intradermal moves.The development of these nodules caused by the immune response of the body in response to the introduction of the parasite and in most cases there is a small number on the surface of the skin.These seals are nothing but intradermal proliferation of lymphoid tissue elements, containing a large number of lymphocyte cells.This form is characterized by scab over a prolonged clinical symptoms, even when subject to all the doctor's recommendations about drug treatment.
most severe on the impact on the health of the patient, as well as unfavorable in relation to recovery is a Norwegian form scabs, which occurs in patients suffering from severe depression of the immune system.A feature of this clinical form scabs is diffuse distribution of elements of an eruption, including the region of the head, as well as the associated hyperkeratosis, beneath which is a vast weeping eczema.Norwegian scab is characterized by an extremely high degree of contagiousness.
Recently, dermatologists noted an increase in complaints of patients with localization of scabs on the scalp or face.In some situations, in case of signs of scab associated with scabies, but it is not appropriate, as scabs in the nose or other parts of the face may appear under different etiopathogenetic factors.The most common disease in which the formed scab on the face is seborrhea, resulting from a violation of hormonal status.In this regard, a scab in the ear, for example, is paid not only to the otolaryngologist and a dermatologist, but also endocrinologist.
In a situation where the occurrence of scab on his head due to a violation saloobrazovaniya or seborrhea, initial therapeutic measures is to eliminate hormonal disorders, as well as the correction of eating behavior.Under these conditions, most of the signs of scab leveled independently without the use of specific drugs.
addition seborrhea, the background for the development of disease scab on the face is acne, which has nothing to do with adolescent acne.Launched acne affects middle-aged adults and the priority reason for its occurrence is a violation of the metabolic processes in the body.Most female patients are trying to hide the existence of scab by application of makeup, but only the elimination of the root causes of scab can have a beneficial effect.
development of scabs in the nose contributes to an allergic reaction in the form of hay fever, for which there is an increase volume of the mucous membranes of the nasal passages and increased mucus secretion.The mechanism of formation of scabs in the nasal passages is the excessive production of mucus with subsequent hardening.In the development of scabs in the nasal passages and important value has deviated septum, in which there is a violation vozduhoprovodimosti.
In the children's category of patients scab proceeds with the development of such clinical manifestations as in adults, with the only difference that for children characterized by the development of polymorphic elements of an eruption and inclinationthe accession of secondary infection, which greatly exacerbates the underlying disease.
Scabbers in infants manifested skin symptoms feigning hives, so in most cases timely diagnosis of this disease is difficult.Favourite localization of elements of skin rash in infants scab is the skin of the gluteal folds, the side surfaces of the body and face.At the onset of the disease scab presented papular and petechial rash, and at long celebrated during the development of eczematous skin lesions common nature.These skin changes are accompanied by not only the itching and pain intensity, and that is a concern of the child, especially in the evening and at night.
Due to the rapid progression of the disease, as well as the addition of a secondary bacterial infection, a child suffering from scabies, symptoms may experience lymphadenitis a significant increase in the group of regional lymph collectors, their pain and redness of the skin over the place of their location.Provided that the total absence of therapeutic measures aimed at elimination of the pathogen scab, a child may develop symptoms of severe generalized sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition of the patient.Medications used to treat scab, children may provoke the development of allergic reactions such as dermatitis, so at the first sign of this condition, parents should immediately consult to the attending dermatologist to correct further treatment.
In situations where the clinical picture of the child's scab has erased or atypical manifestations, shows an additional examination, consisting in the bacteriological examination of the pathogen extracted from "intradermal progress."This method has a high degree of reliability and verification of the diagnosis in this situation is easy.
consolation is the fact that the scab is not classified as recurrent skin diseases, but it is impossible to exclude the fact of re-infection, because even after complete recovery of the patient is notformed persistent lifelong immunity.Re-infection is possible by skin contact with infected people, non-compliance with the recommendations of the physician in relation to medication, as well as non-compliance with the rules of the disinfection treatment of personal hygiene items and clothing.
main requirements using drugs outdoor activities during their stay is a scab on the skin for at least twelve hours a day, as well as the application of the drug on hyponychial box, as in this place the human body says the highest concentration of the pathogen scab.According to all the standard documentation sanitary service, all persons who are in close contact with the sick scab required to undergo a full course of preventive therapy, and, of course, the patient must comply with quarantine.
For treatment scabs increasingly used drugs possessing acaricidal activity in the form of ointments, tinctures rastirok and for outdoor applications.Most modern acaricidal agents are presented combined preparations containing antipruritic and antiallergic component.Preparations for external use should be carefully rubbed directly into affected areas of the skin, and only a scab on the face is fundamentally different treatment.
addition to funds for local external use, to facilitate the patient's condition should apply a number of symptomatic drugs (Tsetrin 1 tablet per day), the use of which should be carried out in the evening.The most effective drug for external use in a scab Sulfuric ointment, however, the drug has a high degree of sensitization, which limits its scope.