uterine cyst - is a fluid-filled cavity in the closed womb of benign nature.Uterine cyst may form from the glands located in the neck, where the participation of unfavorable factors of cervical cancer excretory duct becomes blocked, starts accumulating glandular secretion and gradually turns into a filled liquid contents "bubble."
Less uterine cyst is formed at the location on the cervix endometriosis.In this case, its source is a fragment of endometrial tissue (the mucous layer of the uterus).Uterine endometrial cysts are diagnosed rarely, cervical endometriosis often presented clusters of cells, not a cyst.
To correctly understand the mechanism of formation of cysts of the uterus, it is necessary to provide as arranged in the uterus itself.The uterus is formed by three segments - body, isthmus and neck.If you cut the uterus frontal section, you can see that in form it resembles an inverted triangle.In his upper corners of the mouth of the fallopian tubes are located, the lo
cervix extends to the vaginal cavity.Visual inspection is available only to that part which protrudes into the vagina.Inside the neck is a cavity (cervical canal) lined with epithelial cells of cylindrical shape.Mucous channel forms a large number of folds, they provide the cervix good elasticity and stretch during childbirth.Numerous epithelial folds make the cervical canal similar to the spindle.From the cervical vaginal cavity has a physiological narrowing - the outer mouth, he is out of sight and is not available to external examination.
surface covers the vaginal part of cervix vaginal epithelium (stratified squamous), in the area of the external os it merges with the columnar epithelium of the cervical canal, and this place is called the transition zone.Sometimes it is called the transformation zone.
The cervix has the largest number of glandular structures.Cervical cancer uterine cavity designed to protect against potential ascending infection.They produce large amounts of secretions (cervical mucus), which has bactericidal properties.Number of cervical mucus and its consistency is dependent on the cyclic hormonal fluctuations to a greater extent - on the content of estrogen.
If, for any reason, there is a blockage of the cervical glands, and emissions of a secret can not leave the ducts, in their place, the cyst is formed.A cyst formed from glandular duct called retention.
retention cysts of the uterus can be localized in the lower third of the cervical canal (there is the majority of cervical glands), or on the surface of the cervix.
should be especially noted that since the body of the uterus and cervix are part of a single body formed on the neck of the cyst (semantically) are also uterine cysts.The term "cyst uterine body" is incorrect in respect of cysts located on the neck, so to speak correctly "a cyst of the uterus" and not "the body of the uterus cyst."
Diagnosis of uterine cysts is not difficult, because the vast majority of them are rendered during a routine inspection.To clarify the nature of the cyst and assess the condition of the surrounding tissues, colposcopy.If the cyst uterus (one or more) is too "high" to the naked eye, it can always be detected by vaginal ultrasound probe.
Most uterine cysts are asymptomatic and are diagnosed by chance.Clinical manifestations appear only in the event of an infectious inflammation (endocervicitis, colpitis) or pseudo-cervix.
Not every retention cyst of the uterus requires treatment.Asymptomatic Nabothian cyst of small size (less than 1cm) to a healthy cervix are considered harmless entities that do not require any treatment.Single large Nabothian cyst removed recommended because of the possibility of infection.
Remove the cysts of the uterus - simple, easy and painless procedure.It also takes much time.The procedure for removing uterine cysts is reduced to the evacuation of its contents and the subsequent removal of the capsule.
Causes uterine cysts
So, as has been said, the cyst of the uterus, like the retention cysts of any location, is formed in situ clogged gland.Its capsule becomes hyperinflate excretory duct, and the content is your own glandular secretion.It can be said that the cyst "fills herself."
Violation of the sequence of processes of filling and emptying of cervical cancer can be triggered by an infectious inflammation of the vagina (colpitis) or cervix (endocervicitis, cervicitis).According to its protective function, glandular structures of the cervix are trying to get rid of germs and begin to function in emergency mode: produce more mucous secretion, to "wash" with cervical infection.In the context of good local immunity similar process is successful: an infectious inflammation of the wound, but on the cervix are the consequences - Nabothian cyst.When the mucous secretion too much and it becomes thicker consistency, not all cervical cancer it promptly evacuated, resulting in cysts formed.
There is another scenario of infection when the cervical mucus can not keep pathogens on the surface and allow them to penetrate deeper.In this case, the infected and cancer.Their discharge becomes thick and viscous, it becomes purulent.Once the infection gets into the underlying layers of damaged surface epithelium begins to recover, it overrides the excretory glandular ducts and seals them.In this case there Nabothian cysts on the neck with the infectious process, and their contents are infected.
uterine cyst arises as a result of mechanical (natural or instrumental) mucous neck injury during childbirth, abortion, or therapeutic and diagnostic procedures.Restoration of the damaged epithelium can occur incorrectly when the ducts of cervical glands literally overgrown with new epithelial cells.That is why the retention cyst of the uterus (single or multiple) is diagnosed more often in parous.
Nabothian cysts are the most frequent companions pseudo cervix.The appearance on the neck of pseudo (ectopia) is preceded by the presence of a true erosion - small ulcers (wounds), mucous.It exists on the neck is very short, and then begins to heal, like any wound surface.If the recovery goes well, the wound heals by a reproduction of surrounding cells multilayered epithelium.When wound ends, the surface of the cervix appears uniform in color and texture.Sometimes, however, the erosion of healing "wrong" with the participation of the mucosa of the cervical canal, ie endocervical columnar epithelium, which is "down" on the erosion and at the same time overlaps ducts Nabothian glands.In this case, on the cervix, besides portion of columnar epithelium (pseudo) appear Nabothian cysts.
appearance of cysts of the uterus can cause severe hormonal dysfunction, as natural hormonal fluctuations alter the viscosity and volume of cervical mucus.When it becomes too thick, it is difficult evacuation, and there are cysts.
uterine endometrial cysts often also associated with mucosal trauma or hormonal dysfunction.Endometriosis - a serious dyshormonal pathology associated with migration of endometrial tissue in the thickness of the uterine wall or outside of the uterus.According to their purpose, they continue to evolve cycles, mimicking the monthly menstrual cycle, that is torn away and recover.Lots endometrial tissue can appear on the cervix, but more often they are presented islets cells, and do not brush, so endometrioid cyst on the cervix are diagnosed infrequently.
Symptoms and signs of uterine cysts
Most uterine cysts are asymptomatic and harmless.They are often diagnosed by chance.Nabothian cysts are often multiple and small (no more than 1 cm).Most experts believe that uncomplicated retention cyst of the uterus corresponds to the norm.
Clinic uterine cysts is not with her presence on the neck and on the cause of its occurrence.If it occurred against the background of an infectious inflammation, the patient presents typical vaginitis and / or endocervicitis complaint:
- abundant sero-purulent or purulent leucorrhea with unpleasant smell, sometimes they can be present a small amount of blood;
- the feeling of vaginal discomfort, burning and / or itching;
- discomfort during urination:
- moderate contact vaginal pain.
presence on the neck and pseudo cysts Nabothian not always manifested clinically diagnosed during their inspection.Sometimes the patient's contact point slight dark bloody discharge.
uterine endometrial cysts and often asymptomatic.Before the start of the next menstruation cyst such increases and swells, and then when the month ends, it decreases.Unlike Nabothian, endometrioid cyst cyclically emptied, releasing a small amount of bloody secretions, this is due to the appearance of spotting before and after the next menstruation and moderate pain.
detect cysts uterine simple.Most of them are well visualized at normal viewing.Nabothian cysts often are small and numerous.Outwardly, they look like small hemispherical education shines through thin dense yellowish capsule contents.Cyst of the uterus is conventionally considered large if its size reaches 1-2 cm.
Pseudo on the neck looks like a rounded portion of red on a background of pale pink normal mucosa outside around the entrance to the cervical canal.
uterine endometrial cysts filled with reddish-brown contents, and its dimensions vary according to the phases of the cycle.Most endometriosis of the cervix looks like a red-brown spots of irregular shape that bleed during menstruation.
all owners of uterine cysts are held:
- colposcopy.It allows you to study in detail the state of the cervical mucous, detect inflammation, determine the type of pseudo (if any).
- The study of the composition of the vaginal microflora: smears "flora" and genital infections (PCR) bakposev.If there is an infectious inflammation of the cervix, the number of cysts will increase, and their contents are infected and provoke even more inflammation.
- vaginal ultrasound scanning sensor.Helps detect inaccessible for visual inspection of the cysts.Sometimes cysts are located inside the cervical canal, if a lot of them, they become a cause of increase in the cervix, cervical cavity deform and become a source of inflammation.
treatment of uterine cysts
The need for treatment of uterine cysts resolved after the test.Small asymptomatic retention cysts are harmless and do not require treatment.Sometimes, if the doctor found a single large cyst of the uterus, the patient may be asked to remove it from the risk of infection.
Treatment is necessary if during the examination diagnosed the presence of an infectious inflammation.Once the laboratory identifies the pathogen, selected the appropriate antibiotics.If the inflammation is localized to the vagina and, respectively, of the cervix, enough local treatment with vaginal suppositories, creams, solutions or gels.If endocervicitis when the infection is "hidden" deep within the cervical cavity, the topical treatment of uterine cysts inefficient, so appointed by the systemic (pills) drugs.
Once the source of the infection is completely eliminated, and the inflammation goes, is necessary to restore normal levels of the local ecological community using eukaryotic and probiotics.
uterine cysts in conjunction with ectopia also be treated.Typically, methods and the elimination of ectopic Nabothian cyst same, so during treatment and eliminates cysts and pseudo.
Nabothian cyst can be surgically removed permanently (by piercing), and in the case of endometrial cysts in the neck of this method is useless.Hormonal disorders, which became the cause of endometrial cysts, are compensated according to the rules of treatment of endometriosis.As a rule, hormone therapy used to suppress excess estrogen content.
to decide whether to treat the cysts of the uterus, it is necessary to understand the cause of their appearance.If all survey conducted found no deviations from the physiological norm, and the woman has no complaints, small cysts of the uterus is not treated.However, they establish a dynamic observation, she will need to come for a visit once or twice a year in the absence of complaints.
been cases of spontaneous dissection Nabothian glands.
Remove the cysts uterine
uterus to remove a cyst, you must first evacuate accumulated in her secret.To do this, pierce the capsule cysts.After cyst emptied of its shell fragments are removed.
Ways to eliminate a lot of the cyst.Generally, if the clinic has a suitable instrument, a doctor previously told about the possible techniques and offers the patient together choose the appropriate way.However, it should be noted that the procedure for removing uterine cysts very simple and can be performed by anyone as "old" and modern method.Uses:
- Classical surgical removal of the cyst, when she literally cut off together with the subject layer.Endoscopy.The procedure is quite traumatic, so is justified only if the cyst is the cause of cervical uterine infertility.
- Searing uterine cysts (electrocautery).The "oldest" and is still very popular method.Its high efficiency in the treatment of pseudo cysts and Nabothian compensates longer (compared to other methods) recovery period.Moxibustion involves uterine cysts by an electric shock.
- Freezing uterine cysts (cryosurgery) using liquid nitrogen.Low temperatures destroy biological tissue: first, they are frozen and then die.
- Laser resection.The direction of the laser beam cyst "cut off."
- Ultrasonic destruction of uterine cysts.
- Radio wave method.Uses high-frequency radio waves.
Once a cyst removed on mucous begin recovery processes.In this period can be assigned to anti-inflammatory and wound healing agents.
Slight dark discharge after the procedure remove uterine cysts correspond to the norm.Their appearance is connected with the short-term and exclusion of dead cells cysts (often after cauterization).Worry should, if they are abundant, persistent, and / or acquire a bright red color.
uterine cysts, regardless of size, location and number, be sure to remove if:
- cystic cavity filled with pus and infected, that is turned into an abscess;
- uterine cyst looks unusual, so it is necessary to exclude malignant origin;
- too large cyst combined with sterility when it deforms or cervical cavity, or it closes the lumen;
- because it is impossible to assess the condition of the cyst cervical mucus.
If the cyst removal of the uterus are the reasons for its appearance, the cyst may reappear.