plentiful monthly - is regular menstrual bleeding, accompanied by a large loss of blood and often provokes the development of anemia.Perhaps it is impossible to find an adult woman, not experienced at least one episode of heavy menstrual period. According to the individual characteristics of the menstrual function, rigidly-defined criteria for "normal" menstrual period does not exist, therefore the conditional adopted a reasonable, the rate varies widely.So, menstruation are related to the physiological norm, if:
- they come every month about the same time (margin of error of 2-3 days);
- next menstrual period should not start before 21 and after 35 days after the beginning of the previous one;
- menstruation ends a week later, but not earlier than two days after it began;
important and difficult to definable criterion is the volume of menstrual blood loss.If it is quantified, the vast majority of women have a monthly blood loss is 40 - 150 ml.For convenience, the woma
should be noted that the above accepted norms do not apply to a small group of women who have menstrual abnormalities are available there throughout their lives, do not have pathological causes no harm to health.If you are having menstrual abnormalities woman is healthy, her menstrual cycle is considered the individual physiological norm.
Abundant month have a lot of reasons, not all of which provoke serious violations.For example, during the formation of hormonal function in adolescents heavy menstruation may be related to the norm and go on their own, when the period of sexual "growing" over.
the basis of excessive menstrual bleeding is the process of incorrect rejection of the internal mucous layer of the uterus (the endometrium).Moreover, these violations are not always associated with gynecological problems.
Clinic heavy menstrual period is reduced to the complaints of patients to the increased blood loss during menstruation.Sometimes there is a slight increase in the duration period.If a significant blood loss is accompanied by a few menstrual cycles in a row, joined by complaints of general weakness and malaise, pointing to the development of anemia.
Since heavy periods are not a diagnosis, but a symptom of an illness, treatment is initiated only after ascertaining the causes of menstrual dysfunction.Treatment of heavy menstrual period is reduced to the treatment of the disease, which they provoked.However, in the case of a large blood loss, women's health-threatening, requires hospitalization and emergency stop bleeding.
reasons plentiful monthly
single episode of heavy menstruation can occur in perfectly healthy women without serious pathological reasons.To increase menstrual blood loss can cause excessive load psihoeemotsionalnye contrasting climatic change in living conditions, physical overload (including the gym).
Heavy periods may be the result of improper hormone therapy or hormonal contraception.
For physiological reasons the appearance of heavy monthly and include natural hormonal fluctuations that occur during puberty (puberty) or during the menopausal changes in the body.
To understand why are plentiful monthly, you must understand the essence of the processes, ensuring normal menstrual function of the body.
menstrual cycle - a regularly repeating chain of events occurring in the central nervous system (hypothalamus-pituitary), ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus.Each link in the chain is responsible for a specific function.The hypothalamus controls the production of hormones in the pituitary gland.They are synthesized cycle: in the first phase of the cycle (follicular) stands follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a hormone, and the second (luteal) - luteinizing (LH).
Ovaries running pituitary hormones are synthesized as hormones: estrogen in the follicular phase and progestin (progesterone) - in luteal.Under the control of estrogen in the ovary structure is undergoing important changes: the follicle is formed, containing a developing egg.When the egg becomes mature, the follicle breaks down, releasing it outside the ovary for potential fertilization (ovulation), and on the site of the destroyed follicle begins to form a temporary hormonal glandular structure - corpus luteum, is it synthesizes progesterone.Before the beginning of the next month the corpus luteum destroyed, and in the case of fertilization, continues to operate, ensuring the safety of pregnancy.
in the epithelium lining the uterine cavity as cyclic structural changes occur, and ovarian hormones "supervise" the process.
parallel with the maturing egg, with the participation of estrogen the endometrium is "ready" for a potential pregnancy: expanding, it becomes more loose and thick, sprouting new blood vessels.If pregnancy does not take place, all the changes are to be eliminated, which is what happens in the second phase, when using progestogen endometrium gradually begins to be torn away, exposing the blood vessels to be so formed menses.To get rid of the accumulated contents, the uterus contracts, throwing blood and fragments of the destroyed epithelium outside.
After all tore endometrium, together with blood, is evacuated from the uterine cavity (menstrual period), all of these processes are repeated again.
If any - any of the stages of formation of the normal menstrual cycle fails, menstrual function is impaired.All causes of heavy menstrual period can be divided into two major groups:
1. associated with hormonal dysfunction.Excess estrogen leads to a very significant widening of the endometrium.
2. Non-hormonal causes.They are based on the formation of pathological uterine cavity (fibroids, adenomyosis, polyps) and extragenital diseases (diseases of the liver and the hematopoietic system, the endocrine pathology).
often during heavy monthly increases not only menstrual blood loss, but also its duration.
Abundant month after childbirth and caesarean
If after birth went plentiful monthly, this is not always associated with severe disease.Menstrual ovarian function during pregnancy is a long time in a modified shape, and it needs time to recover and return to the previous physiological norm.In addition, the "mouth" of the excessive load in childbirth muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium) should also recover and return to the previous tone.
Generally, if a woman in labor is healthy and birth went without complications, after 2-3 cycles after the first heavy menses, menstruation becomes regular.Therefore, if after giving birth for the first time went plentiful monthly in the absence of other anxiety symptoms, we should not panic.
a significant role in the restoration of normal menstrual function after childbirth plays breastfeeding.Do not breast-feeding women the first menstruation is expected in two months (or later) after delivery.Breastfeeding menarche occurs later (after the end of lactation) due to competitive action of the hormone prolactin, it stimulates the secretion of breast milk, but inhibits the synthesis of estrogen.
Since caesarean section surgeon simulates normal birth process, causes of heavy menstrual period after the operation do not differ from those in natural childbirth.However, it is aware of the reasons why selected surgical method of delivery, and if they can provoke menstrual irregularities.
Abundant month after childbirth are related to normal time, if they are not accompanied by pain, fever, malaise.Painful plentiful monthly show inflammatory process.
should also pay attention to the intensity of the blood loss and the composition of the menstrual flow.Despite copious blood loss, the amount of blood must be separated yourself gradually decrease, resulting in bleeding stops altogether.As part of the menstrual discharge should not be a lot of blood clots and pathological impurities in the form of pus and mucus.
It should be noted that not all bleeding after childbirth are related to menstruation.After delivery, uterine cavity after rejection of the fetal membranes and placenta forms extensive wound surface with naked bleeding vessels.For six weeks after the birth in the uterine cavity enhanced recovery processes take place, and from the womb expire postpartum bleeding (lochia) that are not menstruation.
For postpartum uterine secretions should be monitored.Physiological lochia considered that:
- quantitative change: after childbirth, they can be heavy, and then go on the wane;
- self-terminate no later than six weeks after childbirth;
- change color over time, from bright red to almost transparent;
- is not accompanied by pain or a significant rise in temperature;
- do not contain blood clots or pus.
Sometimes, patients can hear complaints about "heavy month of pregnancy."Similar complaints are incorrect, as it is considered menstrual bleeding during pregnancy is impossible.As a rule, "plentiful monthly pregnancy" as the complaints are alarming, as it may mean the beginning of a premature interruption, and at a later date profuse bleeding indicates exfoliated prematurely placenta.
plentiful monthly clotted
There is a direct relationship between the amount of lost blood and menstrual fluid consistency.Often heavy periods accompanied by a discharge of dark blood clots.Their presence is due to the fact that accumulated in the uterine cavity menstrual blood has time to curl up and out in the form clots.
Why are plentiful monthly with large clots?There are several reliable pathological reasons:
- Availability of obstacles to the free evacuation of menstrual blood from the uterine cavity.Most often these are fibroids if they grow inside the uterine cavity and deform it.Also, blood clots can form in the womb because of endometrial polyps and cervical canal.
- Violation of the tone of the uterine wall.To the contents of the uterus during menstruation evacuated in time and in full, the uterine wall contracts rhythmically.Violation of the reduction mechanism leads to delayed evacuation of the blood, so she can curl up and go outside in the form clots.Such violations may occur due to the presence of fibroids, which grow deep into the uterine wall, or endometriosis.After delivery, plentiful monthly clotted indicate violations of the processes of involution (recovery) of the uterus, when the tone of the uterine musculature is restored correctly.
- hormonal dysfunction.Abundant month due to hormonal reasons most often observed in anovulatory cycles, when the egg does not complete the ripening process.In the absence of ovulation of follicles does not collapse but continues to persist, producing oestrogens.Excess estrogen causes excessive growth of the endometrium.As a result, in the uterus during menstruation is a lot of blood with clots.
much rarer presence of clots in the menstrual blood is explained by blood diseases, namely clotting.If the clotting time is reduced, blood clots, without having to leave the womb.
Abundant first monthly
Abundant first period lead among the reasons for the treatment of adolescent girls for help (37%).Given the well-known fact that often with heavy menstruation patient cope on their own, we can confidently assert that the first abundant monthly accompany puberty for most girls and appeals for help, only that part which is facing severe hormonal disorders.
The period of the menstrual function in teenagers often accompanied by heavy menstrual periods.They often come in time.Sometimes plentiful monthly lasted two years.Hormonal imbalance is associated with this period of imperfection between all links of the chain regulate the menstrual cycle.If the fragile relationship between the central nervous system (pituitary - hypothalamus) and is interrupted by the ovaries, each unit begins to operate in isolation, and the proportion of normal sex hormones is disrupted.
Among the most common causes of heavy menstrual period in girls present stressful situation, frequent emotional distress, excessive exercise, nutritional disorders (both underweight and obesity).At puberty, menstrual function is significantly affected by the state of the endocrine system.
Most other reasons (80%) of the first monthly abundant provoke variations in the psycho-emotional sphere.As a rule, among the patients with heavy menstruation most emotionally labile, giperotvetstvennyh girls (most excellent student), students in schools of high level of education (gymnasium, lyceum) or prestigious universities.Constant load on the central nervous system dysfunction provoke structures (the hypothalamus-pituitary gland), responsible for the correct functioning of the ovaries.
at risk of menstrual disorders also include girls with disorders of sex and general physical development.
Clinical manifestations of adolescent menstrual disorders depends on what link the hormonal regulation of "victims."According to the characteristics of menstrual dysfunction, the first month can be divided into several types:
- Abundant month against the backdrop of a normal menstrual rhythm.Typically, bleeding continues longer than seven days, the blood loss increased (over 80 ml) and a small amount of blood clots.Increased blood loss often triggers symptoms of anemia.
- Abundant first period with a shortened intermenstrual period (usually no more than 21 days).
- Monthly, lost a certain rhythm when bleeding occurs before or after the due date.
therapy at the first heavy menstruation is required only if, after preliminary examination it appears that hormonal dysfunction alone can not compensate for.In this case, resort to hormone therapy, which helps to restore proper hormonal balance.Most girls respond well to treatment, and a year later they have heavy menstrual period is not observed.
Fortunately, such situations occur infrequently, and to successfully overcome any violations of the body can be helped by simple measures:
- eliminating redundant neuropsychiatric loads;
- the elimination of anemia;
- regular physical exercise (swimming pool, gym, leisure);
- vitaminonasyschennoe balanced nutrition;
- the fight against obesity;
- therapy (if necessary).
deserve more attention first painful plentiful monthly.Often the presence of expressed pain during menstruation in adolescents indicate the malformations of the genitalia or endometriosis.
very plentiful monthly
appear instead of the next menstrual period is very heavy bleeding may be uterine bleeding, which coincided in time with the regular monthly and is therefore called cyclic.