Lymphopenia - it is transient or permanent reduction in the concentration of blood lymphocyte cells in a total volume of circulating blood, less than 1000 in 1 mm.Long duration lymphopenia can provoke activation of opportunistic infections and pathological condition is a background for the development of autoimmune diseases and neoplastic nature.
In terms of diagnostic procedures is important not so much the discovery of the very fact of reducing lymphocyte cells as an imbalance in lymphocyte subpopulations.In order to detect signs of lymphopenia must necessarily be determined by peripheral blood leukocyte in the study of the overall clinical analysis of circulating blood.
There are a number of diseases in which notes a congenital deficiency of lymphocyte cells and develops absolute lymphopenia, which include innate immune deficiency in newborns.
Lymphopenia children can develop not only due to insufficient production of lymphocytes, but also due to in
The largest category of patients with acquired option lymphopenia are persons who do not observe the rules of a balanced diet in which there is a significant deficiency of the protein component of the diet.An analogous pathogenesis of lymphopenia observed in autoimmune diseases, each of which is accompanied by a significant loss of body protein.
Among infectious diseases, accompanied by the development limfopenicheskogo state, it should be noted HIV and AIDS, as in the last decade has seen a significant increase in the incidence according to pathologies.Development of lymphopenia in this situation is caused by the destruction of mostly T-lymphocytes and the migration of decomposition products to the organs of the reticuloendothelial system.
lymphopenia due to a violation of a number of lymphocytic cell production is detected in patients with organic pathology of the thymus, while there may be both absolute and relative lymphopenia.
Increased destruction of lymphocyte cells observed in individuals taking drugs for a long time Group "psoralen", which are used in the treatment of psoriasis.And, of course, allocated a separate category etiopathogenetic lymphopenia, which is a consequence of radiation and cytostatic therapy, which are used in the treatment of cancer.This category refers to limfopenicheskogo syndrome iatrogenic.
There is another category of patients in whom there is no reduction in lymphocytes and an increase in the percentage of other blood cells leukocyte number, against which creates a false impression of reducing the amount of lymphocytic cells.In this situation, the conclusion set hematologists "relative lymphopenia."This type limfopenicheskogo syndrome occurs when a massive inflammation in the body purulent (osteomyelitis, bone, lung abscess, empyema, abscess).
Reactive decrease lymphocyte blood cells may occur under stress conditions.This category includes lymphopenia during pregnancy, which in most cases does not require medical correction, but this group of patients to be dynamic laboratory observations.After delivery, you must be sure to inspect the newborn baby for signs of lymphopenia, since this pathological condition can be inherited.The debut of the clinical manifestations of congenital absolute lymphopenia falls on the first day of a child's life, and in this period there is a high risk of dying of the disease.
Since lymphopenia is not an independent disease entities, given the pathological condition of the body does not have its own pathognomonic clinical picture, but there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations observed in most cases, while reducing lymphocyte cells.Cellular immunodeficiency, which manifests itself in reducing the number of lymphocyte cell production, manifested primarily in the hypoplastic tonsils limfoglotochnogo rings and underdevelopment of large groups of lymph collectors.
Like any pathology of the peripheral blood lymphopenia accompanied by a change in the form of skin discoloration (pallor, ikterichnost), presence of ulcerations and erosions on the mucous membranes of different distribution.Patients in whom there is even a slight but continuous decline in lymphocyte cells, are classified as "respiratory diseases often ill persons", as this group of patients have an increased risk of diseases of infectious origin that occur in the presence of severe complications.
In a situation where lymphopenia has acquired the character, it is necessary to carry out an adequate causal treatment of the underlying disease, which is the root cause of its development.In most situations, the elimination of background pathology is accompanied by a self-leveling manifestations lymphopenia and normalization of the cells of peripheral blood.
pathogenetic therapy lymphopenia focus is to conduct immunoglobulinoterapii long course, which allows to eliminate the chronic nature of lymphopenia and prevent recurrent infection.Parenteral administration of immunoglobulin G is used not only for the suppression of severe inflammatory reactions in patients with immunodeficiency, but also to the normalization of the number of lymphocytic cells.When the patient has all the hallmarks of lymphopenia immunoglobulin dose is calculated by the body weight of the patient and 0.4 g per kg.Multiplicity intravenous administration is 1 biweekly.The indications for the cessation of parenteral immunoglobulinoterapii is the development of severe life-threatening adverse reactions of the patient in the form of hypotension up to the collapse, as well as severe allergic reactions.
Note that drug substitution therapy with immunoglobulin in the parenteral form does not have the desired effect in the existing inherent lymphopenia.In this situation, the only pathogenetic method of treatment is considered to be justified the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cell substrate.
Lymphopenia - a doctor will help ?In the presence or suspected development of lymphopenia should immediately consult a doctor such as a pediatrician, hematology, oncology, immunology and transplant.