Diseases of the blood



anisocytosis photo Anisocytosis - is a laboratory term for a significant or moderate changes in the metric parameters of blood cells, which is a reflection of the development of pathological conditions or observed as a physiological compensatory mechanism.

Change any laboratory criteria when examining a person is always a display of changes in the state of functioning of the whole organism, which is observed as in diseases, and may be a physiological compensatory changes.In the study of blood test for assessing the composition of blood cells should pay attention not so much to change their number as pathological disorders shapes, sizes and even colors.

In a situation where a patient is determined anisocytosis in a blood test, there is the need to use additional methods of laboratory diagnosis, as the detection of these changes is a reflection of the presence of serious illness.

Average size of blood cells are in the range 7 - 7.5 microns, in connection with which the slightest deviation in the

parameters of a pathological anisocytosis (microcytosis, macrocytosis and megalotsitoz).

reasons anisocytosis

Since Anisocytosis not an independent nosological form, and there is only a display pathological changes taking place in the human body, as etiopathogenetic factors for its occurrence can be a wide range of diseases.Thus, vitamin deficiency groups A and B, as well as insufficient intake and endogenous synthesis of iron in the human body over time provoke anisocytosis erythrocytes, combined with a decrease in their content.

case of violation of blood transfusion techniques, in which has not been made a preliminary study of donated blood for the presence of the modified blood cells, anisocytosis also upgraded in the recipient, but in most cases these changes are of short duration and did not require medical intervention.

Various cancer pathology, accompanied by metastatic bone marrow, and myelodysplastic syndrome in almost 90% of cases occur formation of blood cells, which differ from each other not only in size but also the shape, so patients with cancer are classified as risk occurrenceanisocytosis.

pathological changes metric parameters can be exposed to any blood cell, except for the group of eosinophils.Transient compensatory anisocytosis may occur with prolonged duration of infectious diseases accompanied by severe intoxication syndrome, and in this situation is observed mainly Anisocytosis blood cells leukocyte and lymphocyte series.

macrocytosis occurs more often with anemia caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12 group, diffuse parenchymal diseases of the liver and pancreas, as well as leukemia.

Symptoms anisocytosis

Anisocytosis in almost all cases is accompanied by a decrease in the number of blood cells, so the clinical manifestations of this condition can not be considered specific characterizing this pathology.

Almost all patients who Anisocytosis found further examination, note changes in the state of their own health in the form of progressive weakness, inability to perform usual physical activity, heart palpitations, observed against the background of well-being.In the long, anisocytosis, combined with anemia and thrombocytopenia, provokes the development of respiratory disorders in a patient, manifested in increasing shortness of breath inspiratory type.An objective examination of the patient can be observed marked pallor of the mucous membranes and skin until the development of acrocyanosis.Due to the fact that the above symptoms are no different specificity and may be accompanied by the development of cardiological diseases, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive examination of the patient with not only the laboratory but also instrumental imaging techniques.

degree and specificity of clinical manifestations depend directly on the pathological type of anisocytosis, so when changes are detected metric parameters of blood cell is required to be calculated "anisocytosis index" and "measure of anisocytosis."In situations where the patient has solely increase or decrease the size of blood cells, a medical laboratory technician uses the terms "microcythemia" or "macrocytosis", but in some situations one person can be observed both conditions, therefore it is necessary to use the term "anisocytosis mixed type."

Besides the detection of the existence of anisocytosis, for a specialist in hematology is very important expression of the detected changes, so the separation of powers exists anisocytosis common gradation represented by four degrees of severity.Slight anisocytosis designated laboratory analysis as "+" and is used when the contents of the change in size of blood cells is within 25% of their concentration.Moderate anisocytosis or "++" occurs with increasing content of the modified blood cells up to 50%.Expression of the degree of anisocytosis "+++" is accompanied by severe clinical manifestations, as the number of modified blood cells prevails over substance "healthy cellular composition" (75%).Critical anisocytosis or "++++" is extremely rare and is accompanied by a complete substitution of the normal blood cells to change.

Anisocytosis children

When signs of macrocytosis in children aged newborn to consider that this form is the physiological anisocytosis and features of resizing blood cells independently leveled within two months.Also anisocytosis during pregnancy is a common phenomenon, with a total population of altered blood cells predominate megalocytes (cell size greater than 12 microns).

Note that blood completely healthy child may be a small amount as a microcytes and macrocytes concentration should not exceed the threshold of 15% of the cellular composition of the blood.

Due to the fact that in children there is increased incidence of iron deficiency anemia, this pathological condition is prevalent among the other causes of anisocytosis.When you assign a child iron supplements to correct signs of anemia should be noted that in the initial stage of treatment, the anisocytosis may increase and this condition is caused by the rapid filling of the erythrocyte cell hemoglobin.After normalization of hemoglobin concentration in the blood of the child anisocytosis index is normalized independently.

Anisocytosis blood cell platelet number in the form of reducing their size, usually accompanied by the development thrombocytopathy, thrombocytopenia and aplastic syndrome.

addition to determining the degree of anisocytosis, against erythrocyte anisocytosis cells used method for determining the distribution of red blood cells index, which is calculated by determining the difference between the minimum and maximum size of a red blood cell.

Treatment anisocytosis

Eliminating signs anisocytosis observed with signs of leveling the basic background of the disease, if possible.In a situation where anisocytosis of erythrocytes is a manifestation of iron or folievodefitsitnoy anemia etiopathogenetic treatment is to correct the eating behavior of the patient (the enrichment of daily menu foods containing iron, B vitamins in sufficient concentration), and when severe - the use of drug treatment (cyanocobalamin in a dose500 mg intramuscularly Feropleks at a dose of 150 mg).

In a situation where Anisocytosis develops as a result of the patient's tumor process applies pathogenetically substantiated therapy background of the disease, is the use of chemotherapy drugs as well as surgical treatment.In some cases, it is advisable to use against anisocytosis expectant management as changing the shape of blood cells may be for short-term and self-leveled without specific treatment.

Anisocytosis - a doctor will help ?If you have or suspect a development anisocytosis should immediately consult a doctor such as a physician and hematologist.

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