Syphilis - classical sexually transmitted diseases (Sexually transmitted disease) caused by a Treponema pallidum (pale treponema).Syphilis is characterized by rather slow progressive course with periods of exacerbation, which replaced periods of remission.This venereal disease considered the most dangerous of sexually transmitted diseases due to the fact that it affects almost all organs and systems of the human (skin, mucous membranes, nervous system, internal organs, bones)
causative agent of syphilis
syphilis is pale treponema, which are outside the human body is very unstable and quickly dies.In humid environments, pale treponema retains its ability to live a few hours, but when dry, the temperature rises to fifty degrees, interaction with alcohol or soap and water - very quickly dies (within 20 - 30 minutes).Treponema pallidum is able to replicate only in humans, in which it is implemented through microscopic cracks in the mucous membranes and skin
Infection with syphilis
most common way of contracting syphilis - oral, anal and vaginal sex.In addition, the possibility of transmission to the newborn during birth (when passing through the birth canal sick mother), as well as through breast milk when feeding.
Domestic syphilis infection and infection through blood transfusions and organ transplants is very rare.
probability of syphilis at a single sexual contact with a carrier of infection is about 30%.
incubation period of syphilis often lasts three to four weeks, but there were cases as an extension of the incubation period of up to three - six months and its shortening up to ten - fifteen days.During this period, the patient serological tests negative and completely absent clinical manifestations of the disease
There are three stages of syphilis:
- Primary syphilis .In place of the introduction of the pathogen, three - four weeks is formed rounded syphilitic ulcer (chancre) with podrytymi sharp edges and flat bottom.Because of its painless ulcer for a long time it can remain unnoticed and begins to hurt only when joining a secondary infection.Perhaps the formation of multiple ulcers with crescent, linear or oval shape.A characteristic feature of syphilitic ulcer is its complete disappearance spontaneously even without treatment.Many people at this point think that the disease has passed, but unfortunately it is not so easy syphilis advances to the next stage of its development.During this period, the patient is most contagious, because the contents of the chancre contains a very large number of treponemes.In the next step, the bacteria migrate from syphilitic ulcers in the lymph node (so that there is an increase, while maintaining its painless), and then into the blood, and which are spread throughout the human body.At first serological tests negative (a little late), but already in the sixth - the seventh week they start pozitivirovat
- Secondary syphilis .This period begins after four - ten weeks from the date of occurrence of syphilitic ulcers and characterized by the appearance on the skin of human abundant rash (including the soles and palms), in the form of subtle and not disturbing spots, pustules and nodules.The appearance of the rash is often accompanied by general malaise, headache , increasing the total body temperature (symptoms similar to the flu ), throughout the body swollen lymph nodes.For secondary syphilis is characterized by the alternation of exacerbations and remissions that may last for several years.During this period serological tests are positive
- Tertiary syphilis .Comes in five years or more, in the absence of specific treatment and is characterized by the emergence of gummas - syphilitic tubercles that can occur in almost any organ human body (brain, liver, heart, kidney), bones and skin.After a certain period of time, gums undergo partial collapse, and at the same time destroying the body in which they were formed.With the defeat of the nasal septum, it collapses and falls through the nose;ulcerate mucosal hard and soft palate, the back of the nose and pharynx.Affected brain and spinal cord, resulting in growing paralysis and dementia.Tertiary syphilis is characterized by absence of lesions treponem and a low positive or negative serological reactions
First of all I want to highlight the fact that syphilis treatment must necessarily engage a qualified doctor - venereal diseases, as incorrectly selected schemetreatment or incorrectly selected drug will only aggravate the disease.If treatment is started early in the disease, the cure of syphilis may occur in two - three months;in the event of treatment at a later date, the duration of treatment can last up to two years.
treatment of syphilis necessarily complex and highly individual.The basis of treatment is antibiotics (erythromycin, tetracycline, sumamed, penicillin etc.) And immunomodeliruyuschie and immunostimulatory agents.In addition, the patient must strictly observe the recommended mode (multivitamin, a balanced diet, getting enough sleep) and the required intervals and frequency of treatments for syphilis.
In each case, the doctor will individually select the necessary drugs and their dosage, and if necessary appoint an additional intake of enzyme preparations, vitamin complexes and physiotherapy.
treatment of sexual partners should be mandatory.