Acromegaly: causes, course, treatment
Acromegaly - neuroendocrine disease that is expressed in a pathological increase in certain parts of the body, which is due to excessive secretion of growth hormone (growth hormone) by the anterior pituitary, due to itsneoplastic lesions.The disease develops in adults and manifests itself noticeable coarsening of facial features (mandible, lips, nose, ears), the increase of the hands and feet, joint and constant headaches;violation of sexual and reproductive functions in both women and men.In addition, the presence of elevated blood level of growth hormone leads to early death from cancer, cardio - and pulmonary vascular disease.Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorders (4 people per 100,000 population), which equally affects both men and women, and mainly develops between the ages of 40 to 60 years.
This pathology starts to develop only after the cessation of growth of the organism.For quite a long period, gradually begins to grow and the symptoms begin
What is growth hormone
growth hormone / growth hormone produced in the pituitary gland (endocrine gland small, located in the bone notch "Turkish saddle" locatedat the base of the brain) in children and provides processes form muscle, bone, and processes the linear growth;and adults responsible for controlling metabolism (water - salt metabolism, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism).
monitor the correct functioning of the pituitary gland provides the hypothalamus, which produces a substance inhibiting or stimulating the production of hormones by the pituitary gland.
growth hormone in a healthy person during the day subject to certain fluctuations (peak values occur in the early morning hours).With the development of acromegaly there is not only a high content of growth hormone, but there is a violation of the normal rhythm of its release into the blood
causes of acromegaly
pituitary cells responsible for the production of growth hormone, for some reason no longer succumb to the regulatory influence of the hypothalamus and startmuch faster to breed and thus to actively produce growth hormone.Because prolonged growth of these cells formed benign pituitary tumor (pituitary adenoma), which in some cases is able to reach several centimeters in size (the size of the pituitary to 1 cm), the unmodified pituitary cells may be squeezed or disintegrate.
In most cases, the appearance of the disease contribute to the trauma, chronic and acute infections ( measles , flu and so forth.), Diseases of the central nervous system, cranial trauma, adverse pregnancy
In its current, acromegaly is divided into several stages:
- Predakromegalicheskaya: revealed infrequently, since symptoms are not sufficiently pronounced
- Hypertrophic: characteristic of the expanded clinic disease
- Tumor: in symptoms predominate signs of the influence of the arrangementa number of tissues and organs (nerve, and eye disorders, increased intracranial pressure)
- cachectic (stage of exhaustion) is the outcome of acromegaly
Patients complain headaches , dizziness, blurred vision, fatigue, back pain andjoints.The appearance of the patient becomes quite peculiar: there is an increase of the nose, cheekbones, brow, ears and lips;feet and hands become so-called shovel-view;clearly increased protruding lower jaw;voice markedly coarsens.
observed changes in the skin: in areas of friction with clothing and in skin folds there is increased moisture and fat content (due to increase in size and number of sebaceous and sweat glands).
In the initial stages of the disease, an increase in muscle strength, which as further course of the disease is replaced by muscle weakness.In the initial stages of acromegaly, enlarged internal organs function virtually unchanged, but later joined by signs of liver, lung and heart failure.
In some cases, reduced acuity and field of view, almost all women disrupted menstrual cycle (can be released from the breast milk is not related to childbirth or pregnancy), a third of men decreased potency.
If tumor growth is directed mainly towards the hypothalamus is observed in patients with thirst, drowsiness, polyuria (increased number and volume of urination), reduces the severity of hearing loss, there are sharp rise in body temperature;may cause epilepsy
treatment of acromegaly includes a package of measures aimed at reducing the concentration of growth hormone in the blood serum:
- Reducing the level of growth hormone by means of drugs
- Prevent further increase in size, orremoval of pituitary tumors
If the surgery did not bring the desired results, use the remote gamma - therapy.Compulsory appointed dietetics.
In the absence of adequate treatment and poor course of acromegaly, the life expectancy of patients is three to four years;and with slow development and a favorable current - from ten to thirty years.The prognosis for life in a timely adequate treatment is quite favorable, it is possible a full recovery.
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