Circulatory system diseases // Phobias and Manias



obsession pictures obsession is a compulsive, involuntary thoughts, ideas, or ideas that arise through indefinite periods of time.The man fixed on these thoughts, causing him distress (a long, emotional, negative stress), but get rid of them can not. Obsessions can be combined with compulsions (compulsive behavior) or exist in pure form.Against the background of obsessional states may develop phobias (irrational fears).

Obssesiya - history

disease was first described by Felix Plater in 1614, then ZH.-E.D. Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol in 1834 described the obsessions and compulsions with phobias.

Since 1858 IMBalinskii working on obsessions, noted that all have a common obsession - a strangeness consciousness and introduced the term obsession.

In 1860, the disease gives a description of BOMorel, who described some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and in 1868, W. Griesinger described the barren philosophizing.

In 1877, it was noted KF O. Westphal that obsessions are not kicked out of

consciousness, and thought disorder is covered in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

1892 was marked by the successful application of Bekhterev psychotherapy obsessions.His pupil Alexander Ivanov-Smolenskiy believed that obsessions are obsessions excitement.

obsessions - classification

Many researchers opposed the classification obsessions, because it is difficult because of the connections compulsions and phobias.Yet there was an attempt of classification.

KT Jaspers shared obsession on:

- distracted (altered without passion) - haunting score arithmomania, decomposition of the syllables of words, barren sophistication, intrusive memories (individual cases);

- shaped (when accompanied by anxiety or fear) - obsessive craving, obsessive doubt intrusive memories and master view.

Lee Baer disease divided into the following groups: inappropriate aggressive thoughts, inappropriate thoughts about libido, religious blasphemous thoughts.

AM Svyadosch developed a classification:

- Elementary, which arise because of superstrong stimulus.For example, the emergence of fear of the train wreck;

- cryptogenic, the occurrence of which is unknown.

A. Ivanov-Smolenskiy obsessions divided into two groups.In the intellectual sphere, this phenomenon obsessive drive: obsessive representation, ideas, memories, associations, desires.In the emotional sphere is obsessive fears.

Lee Baer believes that the obsession is more typical for obsessive-compulsive disorder.It was found that 78% of people with OCD suffer from obsessions, 10% burdened obscene obsessive sexual desire.When neuroses third of people with obsessions is depressed or hypochondriacal syndrome.

Obsessions - Causes

At the moment, there are no clear reasons to explain the origin of the obsession, because it is complicated by mental disorders, but there are several hypotheses: biological, genetic, psychological.

includes biological disease, and anatomical features of the brain and the autonomic nervous system.This primarily occurs when disturbed exchange of neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and GABA.

Genetic include increased genetic concordance.

Psychological theory includes: accentuation of personality and character;sex, family, and factors of production;sociological and cognitive theory (rigor in religious education).

Obsessions amplified during lactation, the flu, after childbirth, as well as physical illness.One reason obsessions are genetic mutations found in the gene serotonin hSERT.It was found that lack of serotonin between the ROC and the emergence of a direct connection.

Studies with identical twins indicate hereditary factors obsessions.A person with OCD are likely to have relatives in the family with the same disorder.

Obsessions can be directly linked with a social phobia, depressive state, as well as PTSD.

Obsessions manifest as intrusive images, thoughts, fears and desires.It may be the obsession of personal uncleanness.

Obsessions and compulsions often go together, they are characterized by special rituals to help at a time to get rid of obsessions.

Obsessional states can be observed across species.Their appearance can be sudden or short-term, and chronic.

The characteristics of obsessions:

preservation of consciousness, lack of will of the individual and at the same time trying to deal with the presence of obsessions and criticism in his address.A distinctive feature is both an active and a passive type of struggle.Active struggle is accompanied by spite of obsessions, the passive switch to other activities, tries to avoid situations obsessive nature.

Obsessions are alien thinking and correlated with depressed mood, anxiety, and the intelligence and logical thinking is not affected.

distinctive feature of the disease is painful, fruitless sophistication, which is characterized by the empty, barren verbiage criticized this state.Questions that plague patients is metaphysical concepts, moral, religious.For example, a woman in the street is concerned about the fact that nothing and no one fell at her feet out of the window.And if you fall, then who will?Man or woman?How exactly it will fall: on your feet or head.If death is broken, what should I do?People to call for help or escape?Do not accuse me of that then?I remain innocent?

obsessive compulsive sophistication can contribute outlook (worldview) that is foreign to his consciousness and is contrary to morality, as well as other principles, but to get rid of that, he can not.

Obsessions distract the patient from focusing on the object of meditation.

Obsessive memories are the desire for reproduction of various minor events.Very close to this phenomenon - onomatomaniya as obsessive play of words.

next version obsessions - obsessive doubts expressed in indecision and uncertainty of the individual achievements of the correctness of operations.

Obsessive fears are expressed alarm and failure to do anything familiar, professional or automated.

For example, a patient notary there are fears that he could do something so that might lead him to court, so closing the office and asked to hide from him the keys because he did not trust himself.

Obsessive desire manifested in a dangerous, senseless and indecent act.

masters the concepts inherent implausible and incredible ideas that represent for the patient actual events.For example, the patient's son is dead, and after a while it seems that he was buried alive.Hallucinatory obsessions tortured the patient so that he went to the cemetery and listened not hear any screams from the grave.

For obsessions characteristic of contrasting views, and blasphemous thoughts, contrary to the ethical principles of the individual.For example, a church minister at the thought of religious content represent indecent things.

structure obsessive syndrome involves a violation of emotions.It is inherent to most imaginative obsessions.At moderate obsession inherent subdepressive background, feelings of inferiority and insecurity.Maybe join fatigue, neurosis.

Properties perception manifested in the obsession with the elements of depersonalization characterized syndrome in the mirror.Patients are afraid to look in the mirror for fear of a crazy look, or look away from the interlocutor for the same reason.

At the peak of obsessions can be hallucinations, but they are characterized by the presence of severe phobias.There may be disturbances of taste and smell, may be an illusion.

obsessions - symptoms

Skin may turn pale or blush, it appears cold sweat, tormented tachycardia, bradycardia, dyspnea worried, polyuria, frequent dizziness, hyperperistalsis, fainting.This is just a small list of symptoms.

obsessions - signs

When changing the nature of the patient's obsessions and personality in general.Patients become hypochondriac, anxious, impressionable, indecisive, insecure, shy, timid, shy.

often obsessive syndrome occurs with diseases such as psychosis or schizophrenia.The characteristics of schizophrenia is the sudden, incomprehensible content, unmotivated.

obsessions - treatment

Getting rid of obsessions?Treating obsessions divided into etiological and pathogenetic.Etiological treatment removes the causes that injure the patient.Pathogenetic treatment effectively affect the pathophysiological brain.Of course, the leading treatment for obsessions pathophysiological believe.

as psychotherapeutic help using cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.The effect of it is good.

following options appears exposure psychotherapy, psychoanalysis is well proven methods of suggestion, hypnosis, self-hypnosis and the method and the autogenous training.

When obsessions recommended complete rest, passion pursuits, travel, occupational therapy, supplies the body with vitamins and minerals.

Drug treatment comprises administering tranquilizers ("Phenazepam", "clonazepam" "Diazepam"), antidepressants ("sertraline", "Fluoxetine", "Citalopram"), neuroleptics ("Risperidone" "Olanzapine", "quetiapine").

shown physiotherapy: warm baths, cool compresses on her head, ventilate the room, wiping and pouring water, swimming in the sea waters, darsonvalization electrophoresis.

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