malnutrition: symptoms, treatment
malnutrition (epidemic dropsy, protein-free edema, hungry illness, military swelling, hungry edema, swelling of the disease) - a disease long defective malnutrition, manifested degenerative changesorgans and tissues in violation of their duties, progressive disorders of metabolic processes, a significant decrease in mental and physical activity, cachexia, edema, and general exhaustion
causes of malnutrition
The main cause of this disease is a multi-week high-quality and energy deficiencyfood intake that acquires a menacing mass character in times of natural disasters and armed conflicts.Because endogenous or exogenous causes, respectively and the organism enters them sucked insufficient nutrients.A particularly negative impact on the condition of the body have been reported shortage of proteins, fats and fatty acids, vitamins and essential amino acids.
Due to lack of adequate long-term supply of the - of the degenerative changes violated the functions
There are three stages of malnutrition.
characterized by a decrease in supply, increased appetite and thirst, pollakiuria, increased desire to eat salt.However, the general condition of the patients at this stage is not significantly affected.
There is clearly marked weight loss, there is muscle weakness and mild hypothermia body is deteriorating overall, there gipoproteinomicheskie swelling in the legs and lost earning capacity.There is an increased appetite, thirst, pola- polikiuriya, mental changes and initial degenerative changes in various organs.
This stage is characterized by the complete disappearance of subcutaneous fat, cachexia, muscle wasting, explicit mental changes, weakness, lethargy, polyhypovitaminosis, paresthesia, signs of kidney and heart failure, constipation , anemiaoften appear bedsores.Develops pronounced hypothermia (in some cases, body temperature can drop to 30 ° C), acidosis, hypotension.In some cases, it is developing so-called hungry coma, possibly sudden death.
In the absence of urgent measures of treatment, the disease is progressive in nature to the stage of starvation coma.The death of patients in the third stage of malnutrition occurs as a so-called accelerated death (the patient dies during the day), which can be caused by a merger - or infectious disease ( tuberculosis , intestinal infections, pneumonia, etc.);or in the form of a gradual slow death.One of the causes of sudden death may be even slight physical strain
initially requires full mental and physical rest, enriched in proteins and vitamins nutrition with the phased expansion of the diet.Simultaneously with this need intravenous vitamins, protein hydrolysates and plasma.
symptomatic therapy of concomitant diseases of internal organs, with marked edema appointed diuretics, anabolic steroid hormones.Appointed by sparing the physical therapy sessions.
When hungry coma patient immediately need to warm heaters (then allowed to warm drink).Every two hours intravenously administered 50 ml of 40% glucose solution, infusion formulations are administered for parenteral nutrition (polyamine Hydrolysinum 400 ml or 1 liter, etc.).When cramps intravenously administered 10 ml of 10% calcium chloride solution.After removing the patient from a coma necessarily - sweet hot tea and fractional frequent meals in small portions.