atrophy - Reduction of weight and volume of a normally functioning fully formed tissue or organ, which occurs due to a decrease in the size of the cells with the appropriate extinction or reduction of their proper functioning. From this it follows that to the organ or tissue atrophy were quite normal weight and size, as well as quite normal functioning.However, not every abnormal decrease in body should be attributed to atrophy.For example, a decrease in body due to any violation of its development - it hypoplasia;a complete lack of authority as a result of irregularities in the course of ontogeny - this agenesis;organ-preserving kind of early conception - it aplasia.If the patient has a general underdevelopment of all organs and systems of the body, we can talk about dwarfism.Atrophy divided into physiological and pathological (local and general)
This type of atrophy is observed in a person throughout his life.For example, after the birth of the baby is obs
This type of atrophy develops due to insufficient supply in the body or the whole body of various nutrientsor any violation of their assimilation in the presence of certain diseases (infectious diseases, diseases of the central nervous system, cancer of the stomach and so forth.).
Pathological atrophy is divided into local and general and local atrophy, in turn, on the mechanisms of development and the reasons are divided into:
- disuse atrophy.Developed as a result of decreased body (for example, in the treatment of fractures immobilized skeletal bones and muscles).Atrophy of skeletal muscle causes physical inactivity and bed rest.In case of loss of muscle fibers, the former volume is reduced due to hypertrophy of the remaining healthy cells, which is quite a long process.Atrophy from inactivity - optic atrophy developed after performed enucleation of the eye.Atrophy of the bones often leads to osteoporosis by inactivity and shows a decrease in the size of the trabecular
- Atrophy of the pressure.Atrophy of the body can cause a large encapsulated benign tumor.In the bone tissue in the aneurysm can develop pressure Uzury.In case of difficulty urinary outflow, atrophy of the pressure may occur in the kidney.In case of difficulty of outflow of cerebrospinal fluid may develop such a terrible disease as hydrocephalus
- atrophy due to ischemia.It develops due to narrowing of the arteries feeding the body.Anoxia leads to a decrease of organ function and decrease cell volume.In addition, hypoxia triggers the development of multiple sclerosis (for example, cardio develops as a consequence of progressive atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries) and fibroblast proliferation
- Neyroticheskaya atrophy (atrophy denervation).It causes various disorders of the body due to the nervous system and develops due to the destruction of nerve conductors
- Atrophy, developing under the influence of various chemical and / or physical factors.In the case of exposure to radiation, severe atrophy affects the reproductive organs and bone marrow;thiouracil and iodine contribute to the suppression of the thyroid gland;adrenal insufficiency and atrophy of the adrenal cortex to arise in the case of long-term use of corticosteroids
- Atrophy, developing due to lack of trophic hormones (sex glands, adrenal, pituitary)
With local atrophy of the affected organ can either shrink in size and grow due to growths stromalcomponent or the liquid accumulated therein.When granular atrophy authority takes a lumpy appearance, with a smooth shape - body folds are smoothed.
total atrophy (cachexia) is first characterized by the disappearance of fat from fat depots, and then atrophy of skeletal muscles.Then suffer internal organs, the heart and brain.In the myocardium and liver processes are brown atrophy.The reasons for the development of cachexia include: cancerous exhaustion, lack of nutrients, cerebral cachexia, endocrine cachexia and cachexia in chronic infectious diseases (tuberculosis, etc.).
After establishing caused atrophy of the reasons, and provided that all the sclerotic and atrophic processes went not too far away, perhaps a partial or complete recovery of function and structure of the damaged organ, but deep atrophic changes of correction can not be and are irreversible