low pulse - is a common condition that can manifest in almost any person as a consequence of pathological changes in either the background of well-being as a kind of "physiological response" to changes parameters of the medium in which the people.
Given the recent recommendations of the Association of Cardiologists, use the term "very low pulse" makes sense only in case of reduction of myocardial contractility index less than 55 beats per minute.Episodes of heart rate reduction combined with a decrease in blood pressure, however, may occur, and other variants of this syndrome.
There are a number of physiological states (deep sleep), in which there is a slowdown of all processes in the body, including the heart's activity, which explains the physiological slowing of the pulse.
reasons for the low pulse
In the role of provocateur low heart rate in humans may serve a variety of pathogenic mechanisms.Among the causative environmental factors provoke the development of a low puls
As regards cardiovascular diseases profile exhibits a low pulse should be noted hypertension, as regulation of blood pressure and heart rate in humans is carried out by the same structures of the nervous and endocrine systems.Pulse below normal develops, usually at reduced numbers of blood pressure, but in some situations it may be observed reverse reaction.
prolonged hypoxic defeat of the whole body as an extremely negative impact on the regularity and activity of cardiac activity, so patients with hypoxia have a low heart rate, which is difficult to correct medication and needs immediate use of oxygen.
All of these mechanisms of low heart rate are classified as physiological and compensatory, so the correction pulse does not require the use of medical intervention.When pathological changes in heart muscle, such as in ischemic damage, is developing very low heart rate, in need of immediate medical intervention to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications.
Due to the fact that the process of the regularity of heart rate have a regulating influence of the different structures of neurohumoral system, its pathological changes may also trigger the development of a low heart rate.Treatment of these patients should not be limited to the use of drugs, normalize heart rate, and complemented by procedures to eliminate the root causes of the low rate.
Symptoms of low pulse
Very often cardiologists in their practice faced with asymptomatic latent over a low pulse when this state is recorded by accident during routine examination of the patient.Such a condition can not be categorized as "threatening human health", so it only needs to be dynamic observation.
abnormally low heart rate appears or prolonged episodes of dizziness, diffuse headaches, syncope, pathogenetic basis is hypoxic damage brain structures.In addition, non-specific manifestations of low heart rate can be attributed unmotivated weakness, progressive respiratory disorders, cardialgia, neurological disorders.The dramatic and progressive course of these symptoms indicates a violation of cardiac rhythm in need of application-specific antiarrhythmic treatment.
to common complications of low heart rate that can occur with varying degrees of severity, include: heart failure, impairment of consciousness, and even sudden cardiac arrest.
low heart rate less than 40 beats per minute is considered to be nothing more than a sign of a significant activity of the diseased heart.This state is shown a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations in the form of an expression of pain in the heart, sudden fluctuations in blood pressure, profuse sweating, pronounced weakness, and loss of consciousness.
This marked a bright clinical picture and due to lack of blood supply to hypoxic lesion of all organs and structures of the human body.In a situation where the above symptoms develop in a person on the background of well-being cardiologists use the term "blockade of", which indicates the development of a heart attack or myocardial infarction requiring immediate hospitalization of a person in a hospital cardiology.When performance pulse 30 beats per minute, you should immediately start resuscitation in full.
very common considered low heart rate during pregnancy, during which can be very different and depends on the initial state of the cardiovascular system of women.Most pregnant women suffer a slight decrease in satisfactory rate and only complained of dizziness, nausea and drowsiness.Such a condition is not threatening to the normal development of the fetus, therefore, considered inappropriate purpose of medical treatment of low heart rate.
In a situation where, along with a decrease in heart rate in a pregnant woman has the appearance of an acute sense of lack of air, general malaise, loss of consciousness, your doctor should exercise caution and to appoint additional research methods in order to avoid severe vascular and heart disease.
appearance of the patient's muscle weakness in the upper and lower limbs, combined with a low pulse indicates the presence of a person of hyperthyroidism.In addition, for this category of patients is peculiar appearance of increased nervous irritability, insomnia, progressive weight loss in the absence of appetite disturbances, tremor.Also, general weakness and low pulse can be triggered by intoxication syndrome.
Each person during the day may be a pulse oscillation parameters.The lowest heart rate are generally recorded in the morning and during the deep night's sleep.In addition, the index pulse affects the state of physical activity.So, while the person is in a horizontal position and a calm state, he observed physiological slow pulse.Considering these facts, registration and dynamic observation of changes of the pulse should be at the same time of the day, while the patient is in the supine position.The right is considered to check the pulse for a full minute.
appearance of clinical manifestations of low heart rate in the morning of day in the form of headaches, severe weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness indicates the presence of the patient neurocirculatory dystonia flowing hypotonic option.
Low pulse at normal pressure
development of low heart rate of the patient on a background of unchanged blood pressure usually does not cause concern on the part of the physician, especially if the person does not mark changes in the state of their own health.This category of patients often make professional athletes who tolerate little change in heart rate at the unchanged blood pressure.
Patients whose heart rate below 60 beats accompanied by the development of clinical symptoms in the expanded form of weakness, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, reduced intellectual-mental functions need to conduct additional tests in order to identify the root causes of the present state and the future of its correction.
What can cause the development of a low pulse on the background of unchanged blood pressure?The main reason is the aetiology, as a kind of rhythm disturbances of cardiac activity, the development of which is dominated by disorders of the conduction system of the heart due to irreversible organic changes in the myocardium (cardiac malformations Profile, hypertension, myocarditis, ischemic).Furthermore, the low pulse provocateur activating structures can serve as the parasympathetic nervous system that occurs, for example, in humans, low ambient temperatures.
Drug provocation carried out the development of a low pulse drugs such as beta-blockers, quinidine, cardiac glycosides, so patients with a tendency to decrease the heart rate should be used with caution in these drugs.
doctors in any specialty obliged with caution to treat all episodes of low rate, even if they occur on the background of unchanged blood pressure, because in a short time the patient may change hemodynamic parameters, and in all cases there is an increased risk of complications in the form of arrhythmic collapsewhich unfortunately often ends in death.
Low pulse at elevated pressure
development of low heart rate may occur like absolutely healthy person and a patient chronically ill of any cardiac disease, such as hypertension.Patients with hypertension, heart rate reduction of suffering episodes are classified as difficult to treat as antihypertensive drugs, which are the basis of pathogenetic treatment, in most cases, have an inhibitory effect on heart rate, thereby causing the deterioration of the patient.Thus, the main task of the physician is the proper selection of drugs with a low pulse to a patient suffering from hypertension simultaneously.
In respect of pathogenetic mechanisms of development of a low pulse on the background of high blood pressure are the thyroid gland, cardiopsychoneurosis, cardiac pathology, accompanied by sinus, as well as the blockade of the myocardium.
In the role of provocateur attack reduce heart rate in patients suffering from hypertension, should consider the impact on the body of a dramatic change in the ambient temperature, excessive psycho-emotional stress.In this case, a low pulse differs short transient flow and causes frustration expressed by the patient's health status.
Examination of a patient suffering from a low pulse on the background of hypertension, should give preference to such procedures as electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, bicycle ergometry, echocardioscopy, the determination of indicators of hormonal status.
In the event of the patient signs a low pulse on the background of a hypertensive crisis, it is advisable to carry out urgent measures to provide medical assistance.The first patient should be laid on a flat surface and put on the collar area of water compress.Do not take any medications to the patient's cardiologist examination, as the majority of antihypertensive drugs may worsen the patient's condition.
cardiologist for therapeutic purposes must be corrected antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors, alpha-blockers and diuretics medications.In case the heart rate that occurs when high blood pressure is contraindicated the use of "alternative" methods of stimulating contractions of the myocardium in the form of physical activity and consumption of caffeine-containing foods.
low pulse under reduced pressure
combination of low heart rate and low blood pressure means a sharp or gradual decline in the frequency of contractions of the myocardium less than 50 beats / min.The primary task for the physician in this situation is the provision of emergency medical correction followed by elucidation of the root causes of such a state.The cause of the sharp reduction of hemodynamic parameters as rate and pressures can be any emergency condition in the form of drug poisoning or exposure to toxic substances in high concentrations, prolonged fasting, traumatic shock, or other type.Among the reasons for the development of moderate long-term decline is not only heart rate, and blood pressure but are most often pathological cardiac profile.
consequence of hemodynamic disturbances is the development of hypoxic damage all organs and systems of the human body, which manifests itself in the form of attacks of dizziness, fatigue, progressive weakness.First against dysfunction during hypoxia affected the brain, so the patient during an attack of low blood pressure and heart rate, there may be momentary loss of consciousness.
constant steady decline in heart rate and blood pressure, not wearing krizovoe character observed among sedentary insomniacs.In addition, dishormonal disturbances in the body can be accompanied by the development of a low rate and a simultaneous decrease in numbers of blood pressure, which is most often observed in diseases of the thyroid gland, adrenal gland pathology.In such situations, the only effective method of eliminating low pulse is the normalization of hormonal status of the patient.
treat low pulse
basis of pathogenesis based treatment constitute medical activities and medication profile to eliminate the root causes of the low rate, if there is a pathologically altered heart rate.With regard to the need to correct a low heart rate, the occurrence of which there is a physiological disorder, there are different opinions of experts.The majority of cardiologists believe that the physiological decline in heart rate does not need to be corrected, and you just watch the state of human rights and to carry out preventive cardiology examinations in order to avoid cardiovascular diseases, which are also manifested decrease heart rate.
main objectives of the treatment of patients with low pulse is: leveling etiopathogenetic causes of this condition, normalization of the regularity of the heartbeat, and prevention of complications of cardiac profile.The necessity and appropriateness of medical methods of correction is assessed solely by the cardiologist, and in situations where medications used drugs do not have the desired positive effect, the patient is recommended to perform the implantation of a pacemaker, the principle of action which aims to increase the number of contractions of the myocardium to normal values.Pathogenetic mechanisms of heart rate increase implemented the artificial generation of pulses from the pacemaker.Podshivanie pacemaker to normalize low pulse belongs to the category of minimally invasive surgical procedures, which are well tolerated and have virtually no contraindications.
In a situation where the appearance of a low heart rate in humans is purely physiological nature, to apply non-drug methods of correction pulses, which include the use of any product or caffeinated beverage.However, caffeine in kind has a stimulating effect on the heart rate, not only, but also on the blood pressure, so it should be used with caution in patients with arterial hypertension.