chair baby - one of the most important health indicators.Even the doctors at the hospital when crawling sure to ask moms, pokakal whether the baby.How and how much cocoa child will be interested in the future of district pediatricians and nurses - with the patronage of the home, and when viewed in the clinic.In this article, we consider all of the stool of infants, since this is an extremely important part of the lives of young children, and consider not only the chair of children who are breastfed and those receiving artificial feeding. Content
Why is it important to pay attention to how the child scat?Frequency of defecation and acts main stool characteristics (number, color, presence / absence of impurities, texture, odor) to evaluate, primarily, the gastrointestinal tract of the child.In addition, it is possible to conclude that the baby nutrition (including about whether enough breast milk to him);changes in the characteristics of the chair may indicate the presence of disease in other organs and systems.Considerable importance is the fact that defecation in children occurs regularly (usually daily), most of the properties of feces can be easily estimated visually (during the inspection) and so attentive to any changes in stool parents do not go unnoticed.
But what happens when you change the regularity and quality of the chair: call a doctor, treat yourself or do not worry - everything will itself?How did grudnichok normally have to defecate, and how the chair changes in different periods of his life?
Norma - a relative term.Always surprised when I hear "grudnichok should defecate 3-4 times (2-5 or 1 or 10 times, does not matter) per day yellow gruel."Remember, your child is nobody and nothing should.Every kid - personality since birth.How is he going to happen bowel movement depends on many factors - and the degree of maturity of its digestive system, and the type of feeding, and even the type of delivery, and of concomitant disease, and many other reasons.The main benchmarks for determining the individual norm is for your baby's well-being is a child, regularity, painless bowel movements and the absence of the chair of pathological impurities.So here are not only the average normal values, but also the extreme values of the norm and its variants, depending on the influence of various factors.
After discharge of meconium (stool vyazkovatoy original texture, brown or black and green), with 2-3 days the child says the transition cal - dark green or yellow-green, semi-liquid.From 4-5 days of life the newborn is set a certain rhythm of bowel movements.Acts defecation frequency varies fairly wide limits, from one time of 1-2 days up to 10-12 times a day.Most kids pooping during or immediately after a meal - after each feeding (or almost after each).But the chair every 2 days will also be a variant of the norm - with the proviso that it is a regular chair (occurs every two days), and the act of defecation does not cause the child to anxiety or pain (the baby does not cry, but only a little groan, feces moves easilyno excessive straining).
With the growth of the child begins to defecate less frequently: in the neonatal period the chair he had an average of 8-10 times, by 2-3 months of life the baby pooping already 3-6 times a day, at 6 months - 2-3,and by the year - 1-2 times per day.If the first days of life the baby cocoa 1 time a day, usually such frequency and stored in the future, changing only the consistency (the chair of the mushy slowly becoming formalized).
number feces directly related to the amount of food consumed on a child.In the first month of life the child scat very little - about 5 grams at a time (15-20 grams per day) to 6 months - about 40-50 g, for the year - 100-200 grams per day.
norm for babies is a soft mushy texture.But here is quite permissible fluctuations in the normal range - from a liquid to a sufficiently thick slurry.Ideally, the chair uniform, evenly spreadable, but may be a liquid with lumps (if the child pokakal in a diaper, the liquid component is absorbed, slightly prokrashivaya surface and the top may be a small number of small lumps).
The older the child, the more dense it becomes a chair, representing half a year to a thick slurry, and a year is practically decorated, but quite soft and pliable.
yellow, golden yellow, dark yellow, yellow-green, yellow with white lumps, yellow-brown, green - each of these colors is normal for a newborn chair.After completion of breastfeeding stool becomes darker and gradually becomes brown.
Note that the green, swampy-green, yellow-green color - variations standards and green color due to the presence of feces in it bilirubin and (or) biliverdin.Bilirubin may be excreted in the feces up to 6-9 months, that is the greenish color of the chair in this age is quite normal.Newborn babies transition from yellow to green, and the chair back is particularly noticeable during physiological jaundice when breaks maternal hemoglobin and bilirubin actively released.But in the days and months of his life, to complete the formation of intestinal microflora, it is acceptable the presence of bilirubin in the stool, which imparts feces green.
also quite normal when released cal initially yellow, but after a while he "greens" - which means that in the stool contains a certain amount of bilirubin, which at first imperceptible, but when exposed to air oxidized and gives feces green.
On the other hand, if the kid (excluding a child with jaundice) have never been the chair of green color, and suddenly stool become green or streaked with green, the more likely will be either functional dyspepsia (against the background of overfeeding, complementary feeding, etc..d.), or the lack of mother's milk, or any disease of the child (an intestinal infection, goiter, etc.).
in infants who are breast-fed, the chair has a unique, slightly sour smell.In children, bottle-stool acquire an unpleasant, putrid or rotten smell.
general, any impurities in the stool - undigested food particles and other impurities, blood, green, mucus, pus - considered pathological.But the neonatal period and infancy - exceptional times, then even pathological impurities can be quite normal.On the green we have talked and discovered why green can (but not always) be a variant of normal.Let us now examine other impurities in the child's stool.
Normally, a baby's stool may include the following contaminants:
White lumps - due to immaturity of the digestive enzymes and the baby, which is why the child is not fully digested milk (especially with overfed).Subject to a satisfactory state of health of the child and the normal weight gain these inclusions can be attributed to normal.
undigested food particles - appear after the introduction of complementary foods and explains all of the same physiological immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract.Usually the chair is normalized within a week, if at that time the nature of feces from the crumbs do not come back to normal, the lure is likely to put too early to him and the baby is not yet ready.
Slime - mucus in the intestine is constantly present and is protective.Its appearance in small numbers of children who are breastfed - variant of the norm.
What kind of impurities should not be in the chair grudnichka:
Their presence - a dangerous symptom, and the appearance of even small amounts of pus or blood should immediately consult a doctor.
Eating baby who is breastfed, the power supply to mother, and by the way in which my mother fed will depend on chair baby.Subject to the mother of the basic rules of nutrition for lactating women, restrictions on diet excessively fatty foods and sweets are usually baby chair meets all the criteria of the norm - a yellowish, pasty, without impurities, a regular, uniform.When an excess of fat women in the menu breast milk is also becoming more bold, it makes it difficult to digest, and therefore in infants may experience constipation, and the inclusion of white lumps in the feces.A diet rich in carbohydrate, often leads to increased fermentation processes in the gut of the child, and is accompanied by palpitations, fluid, sometimes frothy stools, amid rumbling, bloating in the stomach and intestinal colic.With strong swelling instead of loose stool and constipation are possible.
Certain foods in the diet of lactating mothers can cause allergies in infants, which is manifested not only in the form of a rash on the skin, but also in the form of changes in the chair - it becomes liquid, with mucus.
With a shortage of milk in nursing mothers baby chair becomes first viscous, thick, then dry, green or gray-green color, crumbling off small quantities or having persistent constipation.
Compared with infants receiving breast milk, formula-fed babies less cocoa (in the first months of life - 3-4 times a day to six months - 1-2 times a day), chair of denser consistency zamazkoobraznoy, dark yellow, with an unpleasant putrid or sharply acidic odor.With a sharp move to artificial feeding, by changing the usual mixture may be delays of stool (constipation) or, on the contrary, there is diarrhea.
feeding mixtures with high content of iron (to prevent anemia) may be accompanied by the release of stool dark green because of the presence of iron nevsosavsheysya.
When fed babies are not adapted artificial mixtures and natural cow's milk more frequently observed various problems with the chair: chronic constipation or diarrhea.Feces in these children usually bright yellow, sometimes with a greasy luster, with "cheese" smell.
Themselves lures, which are for the child completely new kind of food requires active work of all parts of the digestive tract and enzymes.In most cases, the first lure children learn not completely, and undigested particles leave the chair, they can easily be seen in the feces of a baby in a heterogeneous inclusions, grain, aggregates, etc.At the same time in the stool may appear a small amount of mucus.If such changes are not accompanied by the child's anxiety, vomiting, diarrhea and other painful symptoms, it is not necessary to cancel the lure - its administration should be continued, slowly increasing the single serving dishes and carefully watching the state of health and the nature of the baby chair.
separate dish foods such as vegetables that are high in fiber can have a laxative effect - the chair becomes more frequent (usually 1-2 times compared with the norm for the child), and sometimes faeces are maloizmenennoe dish.For example, mothers say that they gave the child boiled carrots and it is 2-3 hours pokakal same carrot.When originally not intended to encourage bowel movements crumbs (the child does not suffer from constipation), maintenance of the product that caused such a reaction, it is better to temporarily postpone, going for a more "gentle" vegetables (zucchini, potatoes) or porridge.
Other dishes, on the contrary, have a pinning effect and increase the viscosity of the chair (rice porridge).
All this should be considered and weighed against the child's digestive system features with the introduction of his lures.
In general, introduction of any complementary foods in healthy children accompanied by an increase in the number of chairs, its heterogeneity, changes in odor and color.
Now consider what changes in the regularity of bowel movements or stool quality characteristics are abnormal and reveal a violation of the digestive system, diseases or other pathological conditions.
There are three possibilities: constipation, diarrhea or irregular stools.
concept of constipation include one or more of the following symptoms:
main causes of constipation in infants:
arisen in acute constipation in infants, regardless of the reasons for the delay of a chair should adjust defecation.First, you can try to help your child in this way: when he makes an effort, trying to poop, bring knees bent legs to his belly and slightly (!) Put pressure on the tummy for about 10 seconds, then do a light massage of the abdomen in a clockwise direction around the navel, repeat pressing.In case of failure of ancillary measures recommended childhood use glycerine candles or make the child microclysters ("Mikrolaks").In the absence of children in the home medicine cabinet laxatives can do a cleansing enema with boiled water at room temperature (in the range 19-22 ° C) - for the child first months of life, use a sterile (boiled) syringe of the smallest size.You can also try to stimulate bowel movements reflexively, irritating the anus (by entering into it the tip of the syringe or the vapor tube).
Sometimes there are difficulties in defecation due to a large number of GAZ cars in the intestines of the baby - it's easy enough to understand the way the baby was crying while trying to poop, his belly swollen, can be heard rumbling, but the gases and feces do not depart.In such situations, also used massage the abdomen and bring the legs;You can just try to put the baby on his tummy, vilify him in his arms, his stomach on your forearm.Facilitates expectoration GAZ cars (and after them, and chairs) warming the tummy (mom can put the baby on her stomach, face to face to make diaper warmed to the stomach).From drugs fast enough to eliminate the effect of drugs colic give simethicone (Bobotik, Espumizan, Sabsimpleks), to improve the discharge of GAZ cars used herbal remedies (dill water, Plantex, fennel broth, Baby Calm).
When recurring constipation not recommended to constantly use a reflex irritation of the sphincter of the tube or use a cleansing enema - a high probability that the child "get used" to defecate are not alone, but with the additional help.In case of chronic constipation is necessary, first of all, to establish the cause and, if possible, eliminate it.Treatment of chronic constipation in infants should be comprehensive, including correction of the power of artificial selection mom or mixtures competent timely introduction of complementary foods, daily exercise, gymnastics, massage, if necessary - dopaivanie waters.Less commonly prescribed drugs (lactulose and others.).
Under diarrhea understand frequent (2 or more times in comparison with the individual and age norm), bowel movement with the release of soft stools.Diarrhea is not constant release of small amounts of stool (slightly smearing the surface of the diaper) releasing gas - it is due to the physiological weakness of the anal sphincter, and with the growth of a child releasing gas cal ceased.
The table below lists the most likely causes of diarrhea in infants.