August
12
19:53
Pulmonology

Asthma: Causes, symptoms, diagnostic methods

Asthma - a widespread disease.According to statistics, it suffers from 1 to 8% of the population in various countries.Moreover, in the last few decades, the number of asthma patients worldwide significantly increased, and it becomes for heavier.Ill with asthma at any age, but in most cases the first episodes of asthma cases, it is the children (especially under 10 years).Most sick children whose parents suffer from asthma or any other allergic diseases.About a third of patients have to regularly use of asthma medication.In 20-25% of patients have severe asthma that requires receiving multiple drugs simultaneously.

Content

  • 1 What is asthma and what is its classification
  • 2 causes and mechanisms of asthma
  • 3 asthma symptoms
  • 4 diagnosis of asthma

Asthma - a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of allergic nature mainly localized in the respiratory tract.

Depending on the prevailing prichinnopatogeneticheskogo factors distinguish 2 forms of asthma:

described classification does n

ot allow the doctor to determine the optimal treatment - for this purpose developed a classification of asthma according to the severity of its course:

PSV and FEV1 in this classification - isfigures obtained from the study of respiratory function - spirography.

Asthma is a disease leading to an allergic mechanism.

stimuli that increase the sensitivity of the tracheobronchial tree and causing or contributing to a narrowing or blockage (obstruction) of the lumen can be divided into several groups:

Most allergen provoking asthma attacks, they are in the air.However, a single contact with them is not sufficient to develop the disease.The amount of a particular substance and duration of contact with them should be very high.If sensitization (hypersensitivity) has already come, for the development of the next exacerbation rather the smallest dose of the substance.Bronchial asthma with seasonal exacerbations usually occurs in children and young people.Low disease often is a result of the impact of domestic and other constantly present in the environment of allergens.Contact food allergens with the development of attacks is very difficult to establish, since the time between the use of potentially allergenic foods, and development of bronchospasm may take a long time.The most allergenic foods are: honey, fish, nuts, citrus fruits, chocolate, beans, eggs and protein of cow's milk.

most common (10-20% of patients with bronchial asthma) asthma triggers widespread drug - aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid.In addition to difficulty breathing after taking aspirin a patient can celebrate vasomotor symptoms (allergic) rhinitis and rhinosinusitis.Besides aspirin can worsen the condition of the patient and other drugs from the group of NSAIDs (they are indicated above).Some sulfa agents are often used in the food industry, which greatly exacerbates the problem.

Most asthma occurs in environmentally disadvantaged areas - regions with heavy industry, and a high concentration of population.These factors contribute to increasing concentrations of various pollutants in the air, which act as stimuli.

result of their attack may be so-called exercise-induced asthma.At the heart of bronchospasm in this case, are changes in temperature of the inhaled air: even at low exertion breathing cold air can cause choking (of course, a person with asthma, but not in the healthy), breathing the same air of warm can mitigate already developed attack oreven completely to stop him.

principle of disease is as follows: under the influence of one or more of the above stimuli activated biochemical processes: starts allergic I anaphylactic type that promotes the release of biologically active substances - histamine, serotonin, heparin, and other rendering effects which cause occlusion (obstruction) bronchi:

for this disease is characterized by the presence of three symptoms simultaneously:

At the time of the attack the 3 most pronounced symptom, but many patients are in varying degrees are present even in the interictal period.

attack may occur at any time, depending on the impact of provoking antigen.

Pathognomonic (unique to this disease) feature of asthma is choking.As a rule, it is preceded by a period precursors - after contact with the allergen sick notes tearing, burning pain in the eyes, the appearance of clear discharge from the nose.Next to the above symptoms joins a feeling of constriction in the chest and a dry cough.Breathing quickens the patient, sometimes even at a distance can be heard wheezing.

Just fledged asthma attack is dyspnea with labored breath - expiratory.Breathe jerky, fast;exhale - long, sharply difficult.Exhalation 3-4 times longer than the inhalation phase.The act of breathing involved supporting muscles - the muscles of the shoulder girdle and the anterior abdominal wall.To little to ease the breath, the patient sits leaning forward and leaning on his hands straight (the provision in medicine is called "orthopnoea").In addition to the above symptoms the patient is marked sweating, rapid heartbeat, bluish skin.At the end of the attack the patient notes cough with discharge of a large amount of thick, like vitreous sputum.

In the phase of clinical remission of asthma patients, as a rule, no complaints.

As to the nature of bronchial asthma, it varies depending on the age of the patient:

In classical cases to put the correct diagnosis based on symptoms asthma attack is easy.On examination, the patient's doctor will pay attention to frequent shortness of breath, participation of auxiliary respiratory muscles, nasal flaring, blue skin - cyanosis.While listening to the lungs will appear weakened breath sounds and a lot of dry whistling scattered wheeze, often audible even from a distance.In addition, during the attack found an increase in blood pressure and rapid pulse.

In cases requiring further diagnosis, the doctor will help to understand the following additional methods of research:

How to identify the symptoms of asthma and treat it, says the program "Live healthy!»:

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