One of the main, most frequently voiced complaints of patients is shortness of breath.This is a subjective feeling of forcing the patient to contact the clinic, call the ambulance, and it may be an indication even to the emergency hospitalization.So what is the shortness of breath and what are the main causes of it?The answers to these questions can be found in this article.So ... Content
As mentioned above, shortness of breath (or dyspnoea) - it is a subjective feeling of human acute, subacute or chronic feeling short of breath, chest tightness manifested clinically - an increase in respiratory rate over 18 per minute and an increase in its depth.
dormant healthy person does not pay attention to your breathing.During moderate exercise frequency and depth of breathing changed - the person realizes it, but this condition does not cause him discomfort, besides indicators of breathing for a few minutes after exercise bounce back.If dyspnea on moderate load becomes more severe or occur during a person of elementary actions (for tying shoelaces, walking around the house), or, even worse, it does not go dormant, talking about pathological shortness of breath, indicating about a particular disease.
If the patient worried about difficulties in breath, this is called the inspiratory dyspnea.She appears in the narrowing of the lumen of the trachea and major bronchi (eg in patients with bronchial asthma or as a result of compression of the bronchus from the outside - with pneumothorax, pleurisy, and so on. D.).
If discomfort occurs during exhalation, this is called the expiratory dyspnea.It is caused by narrowing of the small airways and is a sign of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema.
There are several reasons for the mixed apnea - a disorder and inhalation and exhalation.Chief among them are heart failure and lung disease in the later, advanced stages.
There are 5 degrees of severity of dyspnea, determined on the basis of complaints of the patient - the scale of MRC (Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale).
main causes of shortness of breath can be divided into 4 groups:
This symptom is observed in all diseases of the bronchi and lungs.Depending on the pathology of acute shortness of breath may occur (pleural effusion, pneumothorax), or to disturb the patient for weeks, months or years (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD).
Breathlessness in COPD is caused by narrowing of the airways, the accumulation of viscous secretions in them.This constant is expiratory character and the absence of adequate treatment is becoming more and more pronounced.Often combined with a cough, followed by expectoration.
In bronchial asthma manifests as shortness of sudden asthma attacks.It has the character of expiratory - for easy short breath should be noisy, labored breath.Inhalation of special drugs that enhance the bronchi, the breathing quickly normalized.Asthma attacks occur usually after contact with allergens - inhalation them or eating.In severe cases, the attack is not stopped bronhomimetikami - the patient's condition progressively worsens, he loses consciousness.This is extremely dangerous for the life of the patient's condition requires emergency medical care.
accompanies dyspnea and acute infectious diseases - bronchitis and pneumonia.The severity of it depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the extensive process.In addition to the patient's dyspnea worried a number of other symptoms:
With timely treatment of bronchitis and pneumonia in their symptoms within a few days cropped and recovery occurs.In severe cases, pneumonia, respiratory failure joins heart - dyspnea significantly enhanced and there are some other characteristic symptoms.
lung tumors in the early stages are asymptomatic.If newly emerged tumor was detected by chance (during prophylactic fluorography or accidental find in diagnosing non-pulmonary diseases), it gradually grows and reaches its fairly large size causes some symptoms:
treatment of lung tumors may include surgeryto remove the tumor, chemotherapy and / or radiation therapy, and other modern methods of treatment.
greatest threat to the life of the patient are such manifested dyspnea status as a pulmonary embolism, or PE, local airway obstruction and toxic pulmonary edema.
pulmonary embolism - a condition in which one or more branches of the pulmonary artery clogged blood clots, resulting in part of the lung is removed from the act of breathing.The clinical manifestations of this disease depends on the amount of lung lesions.It usually manifests itself suddenly arisen shortness of breath, disturbing the patient at moderate or low physical activity or even at rest, a sense of breathlessness, tightness and pain in the chest, similar to that of angina often - hemoptysis.The diagnosis is confirmed by corresponding changes in the electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, during angiopulmografii.
Airway obstruction also apparent symptom of breathlessness.Shortness of breath is the inspiration in nature, the breath is audible at a distance - a noisy, crowing.Frequent companion dyspnea on this disease is a painful cough, especially when changing body position.Diagnosis is exposed on the basis of spirometry, bronchoscopy, radiological or tomographic studies.
airway obstruction can cause:
therapy with bronchodilators in this pathology is inefficient.Main role in the treatment belongs to adequate treatment of the underlying disease and mechanical airway.
Toxic pulmonary edema may occur against the background of infectious diseases, accompanied by severe intoxication or due to exposure by inhalation of toxic substances.In the first phase, this condition manifests itself only gradually increasing shortness of breath and rapid breathing.After a while, replaced by shortness of breath painful suffocation, accompanied by choking breath.The leading direction of treatment is detoxification.
Rarely dyspnoea occur following lung diseases:
Persons suffering from heart disease, one of the main complaints noted shortness of breath.Usually it is a consequence of the increased pressure in the blood vessels of the heart.In the early stages of the disease dyspnea perceived by patients as a feeling of shortness of breath on exertion, but over time this feeling is called less and less load on the advanced stages it does not even leave the patient alone.Also, for advanced stages of heart disease characterized by paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea - emerging at night choking, leading to the awakening of the patient.This condition is also known as cardiac asthma.The reason for it is the stagnation in the lung fluid.
complaints of shortness of breath to some extent impose ¾ patients neurologists and psychiatrists.Feeling short of breath, inability to inhaling deeply, often accompanied by anxiety, fear of suffocation, the feeling of "flap" obstacles in the chest, preventing the full breath - patient complaints are very diverse.Typically, such patients - excitable, sensitive to stress people, often with hypochondriac tendencies.Psychogenic respiratory disorders occur frequently in the background of fear and anxiety, depressed mood, after experiencing a nervous overexcitement.Perhaps even false attacks of asthma - attacks suddenly developing psychogenic dyspnea.Clinical features of psychogenic features respiratory noise is its design - frequent sighs and groans groan.
The treatment of shortness of breath with neurotic and neurosis-like disorders are engaged in neuropsychiatry.
Anemia - a group of diseases characterized by changes in the composition of blood, namely the reduction of its content of hemoglobin and red blood cells.Since the transport of oxygen from the lungs directly to the organs and tissues is carried out with the help of hemoglobin, while reducing the amount of his body begins to experience lack of oxygen - hypoxia.Of course, he tries to compensate for this condition, roughly speaking, to pump the blood more oxygen, thereby increasing the frequency and depth of breaths t. E. There is shortness of breath.Anemia can be of different types, and they occur due to various reasons:
addition to dyspnea in anemia patients complained of:
person suffering from anemia, characterized by pale skin, some types of the disease - its yellow hue, or jaundice.
diagnose anemia is easy - just pass the CBC.When available it changes evidencing anemia, to clarify the diagnosis and determine the cause of the disease will be assigned a number of surveys of both laboratory and instrumental.Treatment shall appoint a hematologist.
Persons suffering from diseases such as hyperthyroidism, obesity and diabetes, and often complain of shortness of breath.
When hyperthyroidism - a condition characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormone, dramatically enhances all metabolic processes in the body - in this case it is experiencing increased demand for oxygen.Moreover, an excess of hormones causes an increase in heart rate, so that the heart loses its ability to fully pump blood to tissues and organs - they lack oxygen, which the body tries to compensate by - there is shortness of breath.
Excessive amounts of body fat in obesity complicates the work of the respiratory muscles, heart, lungs, resulting in tissue and organs are not getting enough blood and lack of oxygen.
In diabetes sooner or later affected the vascular system of the body, so that all bodies are in a state of chronic oxygen starvation.In addition, over time and affects the kidney - developing diabetic nephropathy, which in turn provokes anemia, resulting in further enhanced hypoxia.
During pregnancy, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of the body women experience an increased load.This load is caused by the increased volume of circulating blood, compression below the diaphragm increased in size of the uterus (as a result of the chest become cramped and breathing movements and heart rate to a certain extent a loss), oxygen demand, not only the mother but also the growing embryo.All these physiological changes lead to the fact that during pregnancy many women there is shortness of breath.Respiration rate is not more than 22-24 per minute, it becomes more frequent during exercise and stress.With the progression of pregnancy shortness of breath is also progressing.In addition, expectant mothers often suffer from anemia as a result of which even more enhanced by shortness of breath.
If the respiration rate exceeds the above figures, shortness of breath persists or is not significantly reduced at rest, pregnant should always consult with a doctor - obstetrician-gynecologist or general practitioner.
respiratory rate in children of different ages are different.It is suspected apnea if:
Counting respiratory movements correctly carried out at the time when the baby sleeps.Warm hand should be free to put on the child's chest and count the number of movements of the chest in 1 minute.
During emotional arousal, during physical exertion, crying, feeding respiratory rate is always higher, however, if the NPV is thus considerably higher than normal and slowly recovers at rest, should inform the pediatrician.
most commonly shortness of breath in children occurs when the following pathological conditions:
In conclusion, it should be noted that determine the validity of the cause of shortness of breath can only specialist, so in the event that the complaint should not engage in self - the most appropriate solution would be to see a doctor.
on one of the causes of dyspnea, pulmonary embolism, in the "Live healthy!»: