May
21
23:01
Gastroenterology

Gallstones: symptoms, causes and treatment

Identification stones (stones) in the gallbladder often become an unpleasant surprise.After all, their presence indicates the development cholecystolithiasis or gallstone disease and raises the question of whether a visit to a surgical clinic.

In recent decades, the disease is inherent in people of middle and advanced age, significantly rejuvenated.One-fifth of patients with cholecystolithiasis not yet celebrated its thirtieth anniversary.

Content

  • 1 Symptoms of gallstones
  • 2 reasons
  • 3 Diagnostic procedures
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Prevention

Formed stones vary inthe number (single or multiple), chemical composition (black and brown pigment, cholesterol, mixed, complex), size and its location (they can be moved out of the bubble in the biliary tract).

Some patients even large gallstones did not show themselves, they usually turn out to be an unexpected finding on X-ray or ultrasound for quite different reasons (asymptomatic form).Others are very small concretions greatly complicate th

e daily lives, causing them:

Sometimes the disease is manifested atypically.Instead of typical abdominal pain have pains on the left side of the chest and chest, similar to cardiovascular disease - angina.

Often patients themselves notice a clear link with the emergence of signs of illness eating fatty foods, stress, physical overexertion or a trip to transport on a bumpy road.

Prolonged stones leads to the fact that they are constantly injure the delicate mucous membrane of the gall bladder, causing its inflammation - calculous cholecystitis.Its development is accompanied by a high temperature, excessive fatigue, poor appetite.The disease is not contagious, so patients do not present such epidemiological danger to surrounding people.

Scientists believe that the formation of stones started with a combination of the following key conditions:

and the appearance of these conditions, in turn, contribute to:

Borne attack of biliary colic should be a powerful incentive for further examination and indispensable campaign to the doctor.After all, 70% of it will be repeated.It is better to know your "enemy" and will start a fight with him than bring the matter to serious complications (empyema - suppuration of the gall bladder, the transition of inflammation in the near are bodies clogging stones biliary, secondary biliary cirrhosis, scarring ducts, gallbladder cancer andet al.), requiring the saving intervention of the surgeon.

Besides the described symptoms can occur when a harmless functional disorders (for example, muscle spasm of the valve - the sphincter of Oddi, which is located at the entrance of the common bile duct into the duodenum).

Modern diagnostic tests required to detect stones in the gallbladder may include:

Identification stones are not always necessarily imply the operation.But uncontrolled self in this case is fraught with obstruction of the bile ducts and emergency contact with the operating table to the first that fell surgeon.Therefore it is better not to drink liters of questionable cocktails strictly prohibited choleretic herbs and vegetable oil, which is recommended by some "healers" of the people, and make an appointment to a gastroenterologist or surgeon.

treatment of gallstones can be both conservative and surgical.

The complex drug therapy may include:

litholytic Admission (dissolve stones) medications can lead to complications, so the patient should all this period (it can last up to 2 years) to be under constant medical supervision.

Some patients administered extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (lithotripsy).

Without surgical treatment is indispensable when:

Modern technology helps to carry out the removal of the bladder without a traditional abdominal incision (laparotomy) through small punctures (laparoscopic cholecystectomy) in it.

prevention of gallstone formation is reduced to the elimination of all possible factors predisposing to the disease (excess weight, an unbalanced diet, etc.).To prevent new stones majority of patients after surgery is recommended litholytic drugs.