most common eye disease among people of mature and elderly, of course, is a cataract.It causes a significant reduction in vision, difficulty in professional work, restriction of human self-service, and in severe cases causes irreversible blindness.However, timely access to a qualified ophthalmologist and quality surgical treatment provide sight restoration and a return to normal life. Content
clouding of the lens is called a cataract.In the development of this pathology plays the role of a violation of the metabolic processes in the lens and intraocular fluid that nourishes it.
are two large groups - congenital and acquired cataracts.
first appear in utero development of the fetus under the influence of infectious or endocrine diseases of the pregnant woman.After the birth of a cloudy lens does not properly form the visual analyzer child ca
acquired senile cataracts are more common.They develop after 50 years.In the group of 70-year-olds clouding of the lens can be found in half.In this case the appearance of the disease associated with aging in general and slowing of metabolic processes in the tissues of the eye in particular.
Besides age forming lens opacities associated with certain eye diseases or disorders of other organs.These cataracts are called complications.They develop at the medium and high myopia degree, glaucoma, diseases of the choroid, pigment dystrophy and retinal detachment.Common diseases that may cause clouding of the lens, include diabetes and other endocrine pathology, bronchial asthma, diseases of the connective tissue, joints, blood, in which the necessary long-term use of steroid hormones, certain skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema).Cataracts promotes the effect of external factors - mechanical, chemical, thermal and radiation.
manifestations depend on the location of the cataract in the lens opacities.When cortical shape changes begin at the periphery and a long time do not affect vision.Once the turbidity reaches the central zone of the lens, reduced vision, the patient may notice the fog, haze before his eyes.If the changes are located on the rear of the lens capsule, the deterioration of vision comes early.Such patients in poor lighting see better, because a pupil passes rays to the retina through the still unmodified transparent areas of the lens.
particularly nuclear cataract forms - so-called miopizatsiya lens.Turbidity in the nucleus strongly refract light rays so that the patient develops myopia, even if it did not exist before.If the patient until the cataracts suffered myopia, its degree increases.Distance vision improved to minus glasses, and the need to use reading glasses plus-fades, what patients are very happy, attributing the emergence of this metamorphosis anything, but not the development of cataracts.This period does not last long, in time to help stop glasses, vision, and reduced distance and near, there is a mist before his eyes.
Usually cataracts - sided pathology, and after a short period of time, having appeared in one eye, and it appears on the other, the rate of development of opacities in the lens on the right and left eye is different.
Cataracts - a disease progresses, it undergoes several stages of development:
When the suspicion of the presence of a cataract, you should seek medical advice.Any delay can lead to complications that threaten blindness.
patients underwent a standard eye examination that includes the determination of refraction and visual acuity, field of study boundaries, intra-ocular pressure.With ehobiometra determined by the optical power of artificial lens implant.The doctor examines the patient's anterior segment of the eye of the slit lamp and the retina if it is visible with the ophthalmoscope.With difficulty visualizing posterior segment of the eye using ultrasound, which will reveal the pathological changes of the retina.
In the initial stage of developing cataracts apply drops Kvinaks, Vita-Yodurol, Oftan-Katahrom, Taufon.They prevent the progression of the haze, but can not sucked already available.Keep in mind that drugs and their mode of use is prescribed only by an ophthalmologist.
main method of treating a disease - surgery - cataract phacoemulsification with implantation of artificial posterior chamber intraocular lens.The operation is performed in 99% of patients.A favorable treatment outcome to be expected when the patients were treated with immature cataracts, t. E. Still sees.Phacoemulsification - a modern method of treatment that is used in Russia for the past 20 years.The operation is performed under local anesthesia.The cloudy lens collapses ultrasonic tip, which is inserted into the eye through a corneal incision of 2.2 mm.Then, the capsule of the lens is implanted artificial lens is flexible.The need for suturing of the incision is not.The operation lasts less than 20 minutes.Vision is restored in the first days after the intervention performed to the level that was before the development of cataracts.The recovery period of 4 weeks, the patient should follow the recommendations of the doctor and eyedrops, have anti-inflammatory effect.A month later, you can return to your normal life.
If the patient has a hard mature or overripe cataract, which is complicated by the weakness of the ligaments that support the lens (called a subluxation of the lens), held itra- or extracapsular cataract extraction.The essence of the intervention is to remove the entire lens capsule in his or without through the corneal incision 12-14 mm.The lens is implanted tight, it filed to the iris, or attached to the capsule of the lens.In the corneal incision is superimposed continuous seam, which will have to remove in 4-6 months.Immediately after the intervention of low vision due to the return of postoperative astigmatism.But after the patient begins removing seam visible as well as to the formation of cataracts.The rehabilitation period lasting up to two months.This is due to the risk of divergence of the postoperative wound.
view more traumatic cataract treatment methods described, it is not necessary to delay the appeal to an ophthalmologist, and surgical removal of the cloudy lens using phacoemulsification it is already planned when the visual acuity of the eye is 0.4.
Treatment of secondary glaucoma and iridocyclitis occurring due overripening swelling and cataracts is to remove the cloudy lens in the background symptomatic of antihypertensive therapy.
main method of preventing disease - timely access to an ophthalmologist.People older than 40 years must be 1 once a year to visit the eye's office to detect changes in the lens.Only a doctor can determine the need for medical or surgical treatment.Do not attempt to cope with the problem of folk remedies, because the lost time can cause irreversible blindness.
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