Splenomegaly (from the Greek. Splen «spleen», megas «big») - a term denoting the enlargement of the spleen.About splenomegaly usually say when that body weight over 600 Thus it can be felt in the left half of the abdomen in the hypochondrium. Content
reasons for the increase in spleen size varied, t. To. This organ in the body performs many different functions.Therefore, the causes of splenomegaly are usually classified according to the mechanisms of their development.
When ingested antigens fromthe environment or under the influence of internal toxic factors develops an intense immun
Enlargement of the spleen is characteristic of many inflammatory, necrotic processes in the body.It occurs in acute infections (infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis, typhoid, tularemia, sepsis, infective endocarditis).Splenomegaly is characteristic of chronic infections such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, malaria.It is found in toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus infection.
In the spleen occurring physiological process of destruction of outdated-life of blood cells (red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes).When blood diseases associated with an increased destruction of these formed elements, there is a natural increase in the size of the spleen.
This mechanism is characteristic of a number of splenomegaly anemia, red blood cells accompanied by the collapse of the (so-called hemolytic anemia).These include congenital spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, sickle-cell anemia.
Autoimmune diseases with the destruction of white blood cells (neutropenia), and platelets (thrombocytopenia) can also sometimes be accompanied by an enlarged spleen.
In chronic hemodialysis instability develops blood cell membranes, they are easily broken.Therefore, hemodialysis may also develop splenomegaly.
The spleen is well developed venous network.Therefore, in violation of the outflow of venous blood from it going to be increased.When accumulation of blood in the body begin to grow vascular tissue, increases the number of red blood cells.Disease develops so-called Bunty.
congestion in the spleen may occur at different processes that lead to increased pressure in the portal, splenic, hepatic vein.These large veins can be squeezed, for example, tumors of the abdominal cavity.Their lumen thrombus may overlap.To increase venous pressure causes cirrhosis of the liver.Severe cases of heart failure with severe edema and accompanied by a stagnation of blood in the spleen and its increase.
The embryonic period is the spleen blood-forming organs.So when her blood diseases may appear new centers of blood formation and metastasis.Sometimes there are primary tumors of the spleen.
splenomegaly accompanied by serious diseases such as subleukemic myelosis, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and others.
Splenomegaly is characteristic of the so-called storage diseases, under which bodies accumulate a variety of substancesthat leads to an increase and dysfunction.Such diseases include amyloidosis, Gaucher's disease, histiocytosis X.
To increase splenic cysts can cause it (for example, parasitic), thyroid dysfunction with the development of hyperthyroidism, splenic rupture under the capsule with a hemorrhage in her column.Splenomegaly may be one of the symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus.
symptoms of an enlarged spleen occur during its considerable size and are associated with stretching its capsule and compression of surrounding organs.Therefore, signs of an enlarged spleen may be aching pain in the left upper quadrant, constipation, bloating.When compression of the stomach a feeling of early satiety and lack of appetite, as well as signs of the cast of the stomach contents into the esophagus (heartburn).
Enlargement of the spleen is accompanied by signs of the disease that caused it.This may be a weakness, sweating, fever, bleeding, weight loss, and others.
splenomegaly Treatment is directed to treatment of the underlying disease (treatment of infectious and inflammatory process, reducing the pressure in the veins of the abdomen, chemotherapy for tumors, and so on. D.).
Occasionally, surgical removal enlarged spleen (splenectomy), such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.In this disease, splenectomy leads to fast recovery of platelet levels in the blood.
splenectomy performed well in Gaucher disease, hairy cell leukemia, thalassemia.
After this operation increases a person's susceptibility to the pneumococcus, meningococcus and Haemophilus influenzae, so in these patients vaccination against relevant microorganisms.