Orthopedics and Traumatology

Flat feet in children: causes, treatment and prevention

Flatfoot - one of the most common diseases of bone and ligaments in children.This deformation of the foot, where it flattened arch and flat sole contact with the floor over its entire surface.

Many parents perceive a disease only as a cosmetic defect or guarantee of unfitness for military service for sons.But the disease requires more attention and timely treatment of children.Although local changes in bone-supporting unit, flat is a recipe for future diseases shin, knee, spine, and even internal organs.


  • 1 How is the child's foot?
  • 2 reasons flatfoot
  • 3 Symptoms flatfoot
  • 4 What are the consequences of flat feet?
  • 5 Treatment
  • 6 prevention flatfoot
  • 7 summary for parents

Flat feet in children: causes, treatment and prevention Normally, all children up to 2 years of arch is missing, that is celebrated physiological flat .This is due to the fact that the bone tissue in children still not formed, it does not contain enough minerals.Underdeveloped as ligaments and muscles.

on the plantar surface of the foot in place a

set of the child at this age there is a fat "cushion."It was she who serves as a shock absorber (instead of the arch of the foot), when the child begins to walk.

Once the child reaches 2-3 years, bones, muscles and ligaments become stronger, and from this age up to about 6 years into the process of forming the correct shape of the foot.Therefore, only 6 years, you can determine whether the child has flat feet.

But during the formation of the baby stops must be adjusted annually to consult with a podiatrist, who can control the process.Approximately 3% of children with flat feet, it is a birth defect that is detected immediately at birth.And in other cases acquired flatfoot, it is formed in the process of development of the child.

arch of the foot is formed from the bones and ligaments.It allows you to distribute the weight evenly on the support and provides cushioning during running and walking.When properly formed foot, there are only 3 points of contact between the foot and the floor: the heel, "pad" at the base of the thumb and the outside edge of the foot (the foot of the little finger to the heel).

for flat arch is deformed, and the entire plantar surface of the foot flattens, adjacent to the ground or floor.The center of gravity of the body moves, helping to incorrect posture.

Everyone knows that on the plantar surface of the foot are biologically active points ("representation" of the various organs and systems).Constant stimulation of these points with flat feet can cause a variety of pathological conditions by the muscles, joints and internal organs.

only causes of flat feet can not be named.There are quite a number of factors contributing to the development of this pathology.

Factors contributing to the development of flatfoot :

The researchers found that children living in the city, flat develops 3 times more likely than rural children with an opportunity and a habit of walking barefoot.

Therefore, for the proper formation of the foot is recommended at least occasionally to give the child to walk barefoot on grass, sand, pea gravel (gravel).Houses can train stop developing baby walking socks are scattered on the peas.

for the proper formation of the foot is set to load on it: at low motor activity of the child's chance of developing flat feet above.This is especially important now, when the children from an early age "attached" to the computer, television and spend very little time on the street.As a result, it formed not only flat, but also a violation of posture.

Equally important for the prevention of flatfoot is baby shoes: it should have a small heel (0.5 cm), soft instep, and tight heel.The child does not have to continue wearing shoes other children, as worn-in shoe properly distributed load on the foot."Wrong" is not only very flat (just without a heel) shoes, but too narrow or too wide shoes.

To prevent flatfoot important proper nutrition of the child, with sufficient products in calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D.

Even if the baby is well-formed foot, the child does not guarantee the absence of further flat feet.In some cases, the disease is not detected in the preschool years and continues to progress;reveal it in adolescence or even later.

Distinguish following types of flatfoot:

By the time of the pathology of the foot:

Due to the occurrence:

Direction spreading:

Flat feet in children: causes, treatment and prevention Parents may suspect the development of flatfoot child on such grounds:

If you find a child of any of thesesymptoms should consult a podiatrist.

more clearly is such a test in the flat: the plantar surface of the foot of the child smeared with paint or oil and place it on a sheet of paper (the legs should be straight and serried).Then pick up the child and consider a printed pattern.If it is in the form of beans - arch is correct, if the entire foot wide imprinted, it is necessary to address to the orthopedist.This test is applicable only to children older than 5-6 years, when the foot is already formed.

Podiatrist usually also uses plantography - the study of foot prints on a piece of paper after the lubrication of the soles with a special solution.

the child reaches 5 years of age is required mandatory inspection podiatrist, even if no complaints.

Many parents mistakenly think that the flat is not a serious threat to the health of the child, and did not even consider it a disease.Such parents do not take seriously the complaints toddler fatigue and pain in the legs or back, consider them a whim, do not feel the need to show the child orthopedist.

This attitude is unacceptable, because it can lead to delayed treatment and the development of a number of complications and consequences of flatfoot.

foot acts as a "spring" when walking or running.When flat feet depreciation due to foot virtually none.Therefore, when walking or running "output," or shake falls on the lower leg, hip and spine, which contributes to the development of osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease due to the collapse of intra-articular cartilage).

Often the appearance of scoliosis (curvature of the spine) due to the asymmetry of the sacrum occurring in this pathology.Often noted for flat ingrown nails, bending toes.

«harmless" flat feet can not only lead to deformation of the bones of the foot, lameness and deformity of the child, fatigue when walking, but also become a cause of vertebral hernia, persistent sciatica, arthritis (joint inflammation), and degenerative disc disease in the future.

Enabling active energy points on the soles can cause, according to some experts, many of diseases of various organs.

hesitate with securing medical care and treatment is impossible, for timely treatment makes it possible to prevent further progression of the disease and complications.After all, in itself flat passes.

designated orthopedic treatment helps to strengthen foot muscles, improving its blood supply, gentle on the joints and ligaments to correct existing deformity and ankle.

it easier to achieve success as a child, when there was complete ossification of the skeleton.Treatment should be even with the minimum degree of flatfoot.The later treatment begins, the more difficult to correct existing violations.

Treatment of flat feet in children is carried out by various methods:

During treatment orthopedist will determine the frequency of visits to the doctor for treatment monitoring and correction (if necessary).

Flat feet in children: causes, treatment and prevention

Flat feet in children: causes, treatment and prevention diagnose a child's flat feet can be no earlier than 5-6 years, but it is necessary to deal with the prevention from the very birth.

complex special gymnastics to strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and the prevention of flatfoot include such exercises:

- extension and flexion of the toes;

- alternately lifting from the floor socks and heels;

- circular motion of each foot;

- pulling socks by himself and to himself;

- maximum dilution in the heel side, without taking socks from the floor;

- up on tiptoes;

- to stand on the outside edges of the feet;

- squats without interrupting the heels from the floor;

- alternating walking on toes, on their heels, on the outer edges of the feet.

All exercises should demonstrate a child, and repeat each of them baby should several times.Perform exercises should be daily.The more the child will deal with them, there will be less risk of developing flatfoot.

Parents should not be mistaken with regard to the significance of the small flat feet in children.The sad consequences of such an attitude to the disease not long in coming, and may complicate the entire life of the child: limit the choice of profession, cause suffering and pain.

This illness will lead not only to a severe bone deformities of the foot and to all diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and even to the pathology of the internal organs.

only appropriate and timely treatment can help restore the health of the child.The main thing - do not be late with the treatment with the development of flatfoot!