Most of the world's population, especially those living in big cities, have to be under constant environmental and emotional stress.It is proved that the stress is not harmless to the human body, it is a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, as well as having a negative impact on the nervous system, causing the person becomes irritable, it decreases performance, deteriorating memory and thought processes.In this regard, researchers are searching for ways to continuously prevention and correction of the negative effects of stress on the nervous system.Even 50 years ago there was the concept of neuroprotective agents have been synthesized and tested Piracetam.It gave a powerful impetus to the search for and the creation of other substances with a similar principle, this research continues to this day.
In this article, the reader will get an idea of what is nootropics and what effects they have, read the indications, contraindications, side effects of these drugs in general, and finds particular
- 1 What nootropics
- 2 Effects and mechanisms of action of neuroprotective drugs
- 3 Classification nootropov
- 4 Indications nootropov
- 5 Contraindications to receivenootropov
- 6 Side effects of nootropics
- 7 Brief description of products
- 7.1 Piracetam (piracetam, Lutset, Biotropil, Nootropil)
- 7.2 pramiracetam (Pramistar)
- 7.3 vinpocetine (Cavinton,Neyrovin, vinpocetine, Vitsebrol)
- 7.4 Phenibut (bIGF, Noofen, Noobut, Phenibut)
- 7.5 hopantenic acid (Pantogam)
- 7.6 Pyritinol (Encephabol)
- 7.7 Glycine (Glycine, Glitsised)
- 7.8 Cere
- 7.9 Aktovegin
- 7.10 hexobendine (Instenon)
- 7.11 Combination products
According to the World Health Organization, nootropic drugs - this means providingactivating effect on learning, improve alertness and memory, increase resistance (resistance) of the brain aggressive influences such as trauma, intoxication, hypoxia.
first in the history of Piracetam is a nootropic, which was synthesized and used in the clinic Belgian pharmacologists in the distant 1963.During the study, researchers found that the drug significantly improves mental fitness, improves memory and promotes learning.In the future, we have been synthesized and other drugs with similar effects, which we discuss below.
main effects of drugs of this group are:
These drugs do not cause addiction and pharmacological agitation, not receiving their results in the depletion of the body's physical capabilities.
The basis of action of drugs in this group are such processes:
neuroprotective drugs activate the enzyme adenylate cyclase, increasing its concentration in the nerve cells.This substance is necessary to maintain the stability of the production of the cell main energy source for biochemical and physiological processes - adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is also under hypoxia translates metabolism in the brain is optimally stored mode.
Furthermore, nootropics affect neurotransmitter systems in the brain, in particular on:
As a result of the above effects in the patient improves memory, attention, mental processes and processes perception, increasing its capacity for learning, intellectual functions are activated.
Class neuroprotective drugs are agents of various pharmacological groups, which have a positive impact on the work of nerve cells and improving their structure.
Medicines class nootropics are used to treat the following diseases:
in pediatric nootropics are used for treating the following conditions:
Drugs in this group can not be accepted in the following cases:
Drugs in this group rarely cause any sideeffects, but in some patients while taking them may experience the following adverse reactions:
Since the drugs belonging to the desired contact class of drugs, are actually quite a lot, all they see we can not, and will talk only about thoseWe received the most widespread in medical practice today.
issued in the form of tablets and oral solution for injection and infusion.
drug has a positive effect on blood circulation and metabolic processes in the brain, resulting in increased resistance to brain tissue hypoxia and exposure to toxic substances, as well as improved memory, integrative activity of the brain, increases the ability to learn.
If ingestion is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, the maximum concentration in the blood is determined after 1 hour.It penetrates into many organs and tissues, including the blood-brain and placental barriers.The half-life is 4 hours.Excreted by the kidneys.
route of administration: orally or parenterally (intramuscularly or intravenously).Tablets are recommended to take before meals.The dosage and duration of treatment is determined individually, depending on the characteristics of the disease and its clinical course.
the treatment of patients suffering from renal failure, care should be taken to adjust the dose depending on the level of creatinine clearance.
side effects of the standard, and there they are, as a rule, patients elderly, provided they receive a dose of piracetam 2.4 g per day.
have an effect on platelet aggregation, therefore, be used with caution in patients suffering from disorders of hemostasis and prone to bleeding.
during pregnancy and lactation is contraindicated.
In the case of sleep disorders in patients receiving piracetam should cancel evening reception it and add it to the daily dose.
release form - pill.
has a high affinity to the choline.It improves the ability to learn, remember and mental activity as a whole.No sedative effect, has no effect on the autonomic nervous system.
absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract rapidly and almost completely, the maximum concentration of active ingredient in the blood is determined 2-3 hours.The half-life is 4-6 hours.Excreted by the kidneys.
recommended to be taken orally 1 tablet twice a day.The effect is noticeable immediately, but only after 4-8 weeks of regular treatment.
during pregnancy and lactation is contraindicated Pramistara reception.
in patients with impaired renal function should be closely monitored for the development of their side-effects - it will be a sign of an excess of the active substance in the body and require dose reduction.
issued in the form of tablets and solution for infusion.
improves the microcirculation in the brain, increases cerebral blood flow, does not cause the phenomenon of "steal."
When ingestion absorbed in the digestive tract by 70%.Maximum concentration in the blood is determined after 60 minutes.The half-life of about 5 hours.
is used in neurology (chronic cerebral circulatory disorders and other diseases, as described in the general part of the article) and in ophthalmology (for the treatment of chronic diseases of retinal vessels) and otology (to restore hearing acuity).
If the doctor has not appointed otherwise recommended to take 1 tablet (that is 5 mg) three times a day for 1-8 months.When you remove the drug to reduce the dose gradually - within 3-5 days.
In the case of initiation of therapy in the acute phase of the disease, should be administered parenterally, vinpocetine, and then continue oral dose of 1-2 tablets three times a day after meals.
release form - tablets, capsules, powder for oral solution.
dominant effects of this drug are anti-hypoxic and antiamnestic.The drug improves memory, increases mental and physical performance, stimulates the learning process.Moreover, it eliminates anxiety, fear, emotional stress, improves sleep.It enhances and prolong the effects of sleeping pills, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics.It reduces the symptoms of fatigue.
After ingestion well absorbed and penetrates into all organs and tissues of the body, especially the blood-brain barrier.
applied in reducing the emotional and intellectual activity, concentration, memory impairment, asthenia, anxiety and neurotic and neurosis-like states, insomnia, Meniere's disease, as well as to prevent motion sickness.In the treatment of predelirioznyh and delirious alcoholic state, osteochondrosis of the cervical-thoracic spine, menopausal disorders.
recommended to be taken orally before meals, 250-500 mg three times a day.The maximum daily dose is 2.5 g, the maximum single - 750 mg.Duration of treatment - from 4 to 6 weeks.
in various clinical situations, dosage regimen may vary.
irritant, therefore be used with caution in patients suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
issued in the form of tablets.
reduces motor excitability, normalize behavioral responses, improves performance, stimulates mental activity.
quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.The maximum concentration of active ingredient in the blood is determined at 60 minutes after administration.Creates high concentrations in the kidneys, liver, skin and stomach wall.It penetrates the blood-brain barrier.Excreted from the body within 2 days.
drug inside half an hour after eating.Single dose for adults is 250-1000 mg.Daily dose - 1.5-3 The course of treatment - 1-6 months.After 3-6 months, you can repeat the course.In the treatment of various diseases of the dose may vary.
Contraindications and side effects described above.
issued in the form of tablets and oral suspension (this dosage form is intended for children).
Possesses strong neuroprotective effect stabilizes neuronal membranes, reduces the number of free radicals, reduces the aggregation of erythrocytes.Positive effect on behavioral and cognitive functions.
average recommended dose for adults is 600 mg per day.The course of treatment - at least 4 weeks.
Subject to the dosing regimen of the drug development side effects are unlikely.
release form - pill.
improves metabolism in muscle and brain tissues.It has a sedative effect.
applied sublingually (dissolving under the tongue).
to treat depression, anxiety and irritability take glycine at 0.1 g 2-4 times a day.If alcoholism is prescribed according to the recommended regimen.
Contraindications - Hypersensitivity to glycine.Side effects have not been described.
release form - injection.
improves the function of nerve cells, stimulates their differentiation, activates mechanisms for the protection and recovery.
penetrates the blood-brain barrier.
applied at metabolic, organic and neurodegenerative diseases of the brain, in particular Alzheimer's disease, also used in the treatment of stroke, traumatic brain injuries.
Daily doses vary widely depending on the disease and ranges from 5 to 50 ml.Routes of administration - intramuscular and intravenous.
used with caution for patients with allergic diathesis.
release form - pill, injection and infusion.
contains only physiological substance.Increases resistance to cerebral hypoxia, accelerates the processes of glucose utilization.
applied in ischemic and residual effects of hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injury.It is widely used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, burns, peripheral circulatory disorders, as well as trophic disorders in order to accelerate the healing process of wounds.
generally well tolerated.In some cases, develop the reaction described at the outset.
permitted for use during pregnancy and lactation.
contraindicated in case of individual hypersensitivity to the drug.
contains sucrose, therefore patients with hereditary disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is not applicable.
issued in the form of tablets and oral solution for intramuscular and intravenous administration.
stimulates the metabolic processes in the brain and myocardium improves cerebral and coronary circulation.Antispasmodics.
Indications for use of this drug are diseases of the brain and the vascular nature of the age, the consequences of insufficient blood supply to the brain, dizziness.
Contraindications individual sensitivity to the drug, increased intracranial pressure, epileptiform syndromes.During pregnancy and lactation applies solely on the testimony.
Inside recommended to take during or after a meal, without chewing, drinking plenty of water.Dosage is 1-2 tablets three times a day.The maximum daily dose - 5 tablets.The treatment duration is at least 6 weeks.
Injection is administered intramuscularly, intravenously, or slow drip.The dosage depends on the features of the clinical course of the disease.
During treatment with this drug can not use tea and coffee in large quantities.If the drug is administered intravenously, allowed only a slow infusion intravenous injection and should be continued for at least 3 minutes.The rapid introduction of the drug may lead to a sharp decrease in blood pressure.
There are many drugs that are in the structure of 2 or more components of similar action or synergistic effects of each other.The main ones are:
So above you are familiar with the most popular to date, drugs group nootropics.Some of them are the first drug in this class, but many developed much later and are much more efficient, so they can safely be called the new generation of nootropics.Please note that the information provided in the article is not a guide to action: in the event you have any unpleasant symptoms should not self-medicate, and the need to seek professional help.