August
12
19:53
Neuroscience

Cerebral Palsy and its causes

cerebral palsy, or cerebral palsy - a pathology of the central nervous system associated with underdevelopment of the brain, is not progressing, but there is a lag in physical and mental development of the baby.

Movement disorders may have different severity from muscle twitching, paralysis and expression imbalance.Mental retardation and speech disorders also depend on the extent of brain damage.

In any case, cerebral palsy interferes with the normal development of the child and the acquisition of essential skills.According to statistics, the incidence of cerebral palsy in Russia amounts to 2 cases per 1,000 children.

Content

  • 1 reasons
  • 2 Symptoms
  • 3 types of cerebral palsy
  • 4 Treatment
  • 5 Prevention
  • 6 summary for parents

brain damage can occur during fetal development (70% of all cases), or after birth.The most dangerous is the first trimester of pregnancy.

most common cause of brain damage as a result of infection.The body of the pregnant woman can cope with the disease

, but it does not protect the brain from the damaging effect of fetal infection.

for the development of cerebral palsy have a value such infections pregnant as:

increases the risk of:

All of these conditions result in oxygen deficiency (hypoxia), which contribute to a violation of the bookmark and the subsequent development of the brain.

factors are also at higher risk:

The generic process of the emergence of cerebral palsy may be associated with birth trauma or fetal hypoxia during prolonged labor.In many cases, the cause of damage is a combination of several factors.

In rare cases, the pathology can be caused by radiation, and X-ray radiation or other electromagnetic radiation;poisoning the woman in childbearing;genetic disorders of chromosomes.

After giving birth, cause of brain damage can be meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the membranes and substance of the brain) and traumatic brain injury.

Determine cerebral palsy before birth is not possible.Usually, the first symptoms of the disease only notice when the baby lag in physical and psychomotor development.

Symptoms of cerebral palsy is divided into early and late.Terms of the onset of symptoms and the nature of them depend on the severity and location of the underdeveloped areas of the brain.Severity of symptoms may also vary from mild to very severe.

Early symptoms include:

By late signs include:

more likely become apparent from the disturbed functions of the musculoskeletal system: in addition to the increased muscle tone, may experience involuntary jerking limbs may be difficult to move or not to move at all.The child does not get on its feet and relies only on tiptoes, he can not hold a toy in his hand.

Stiffness in the joints further limits movement.Developed paralysis of limbs making them thinner and shorter.It is possible the appearance of epileptic seizures.It may develop strabismus, decreased visual acuity, twitching of the eyeballs, and others.

violated the psyche of the child, training becomes unavailable because of his restlessness and lack of concentration, memory loss.No draw or paint pictures does not love does not know how.

For mild symptoms the child is perceived as awkward, clumsy.He can not catch the ball, it hit the foot, does not know how to hold a spoon in his hand.The kid has no interest in games and communicate with other children.

incoordination leads to the fact that a child can not buttoned and tie a shoelace, can not jump (rope or obstruction) often comes up against things.According to the classification

allocate these types of cerebral palsy:

- kvadriparez or tetraparalich: develops due to injuries during childbirth;the child is not holding the head, the handle bent at the elbows, fingers clenched into fists, legs crossed;

- hemiparesis or hemiplegia: notice it in an unnatural position of the limbs on one side;

- diplegia: defeat the top or bottom (usually) Of course, because of what the child can not walk.

may include the mixed form of cerebral palsy, and unspecified.

Diagnosis is based on neurological disorders identified through examination by a neurologist, an additional survey data (the definition of the electrical potential of muscle, EEG), the results of the inspection of other specialists (podiatrist, ophthalmologist, ENT physician, psychiatrist).

For the selection of individual treatment is carried out using special test score violations and physical abilities.

Since the vast majority of children with cerebral palsy is marked mental retardation, delayed speech development, it is usually their training takes place in a specialized school or boarding school, where they work, in addition to teachers, psychologists, physical therapists, speech therapists, and others. Specialists.

It is important to start treatment of cerebral palsy in the early stages and carry out continuously, only in this case, you can count on a favorable outcome.Comprehensive treatment of each child performed on an individual plan.

It may include such components:

goal of treatment for a child with cerebral palsy is to improve the elasticity of muscles, improving the functionality of the musculoskeletal system and the development of mental health.

Medication is when symptomatic cerebral palsy.It involves the use of brain metabolic drugs, neuroprotective (Cere Tserakson, Cortexin, Somazin, Piracetam, etc..), Cardiovascular agents (Aktovegin).

In marked spasm of muscle relaxants used (Mydocalm, baclofen, and others.), Vitamins (Neurovitan, B vitamins).In severe cases, it can be used in the administration of small doses in several points of tense muscles of botulinum toxin (Botox).

When epileptic seizures doctor selects anticonvulsants (lamotrigine Toparamat et al.).If necessary, appointed analgesics, antidepressants or tranquilizers.

widely used physiotherapy , aimed at preventing deformation and contractures of joints and muscles.Use a large number of methods of treatment:

In case of muscle contractures (limitation of motion in the joints), when a dislocation of joints, possible surgical treatment: the elongation of the tendons and muscles, bones (arthroplasty, ahilloplastika) operation on the nerves.In some cases, used to treat orthopedic casts and hardware development of the joints.

Since 2006, began to be used a method of treatment of cerebral palsy with implantation of stem cells.This technique is a method of biological "clean up" the CNS.In Russia, this treatment is carried out at the General Hospital of armed police.The treatment took place about 3,000 children with different types of cerebral palsy, treatment efficiency is 85% (based on the results of 2013).

method is based on the ability of stem cells to differentiate yourself and replace the affected nerve cells.In addition, these cells can restore the damaged myelin sheath of a nerve cell, thereby ensuring normal impulse conduction.

a result of treatment with stem cells in children improved motor function (postural stability in sitting and standing, improved walking, etc.), develop better speech and intellectual ability, memory and concentration, decreased strabismus, salivation to normal.

precondition of treatment is daily routine physical therapy, special complexes of exercises are chosen by each child.This widespread use is the use of simulators.

Psychological assistance is needed at any age child.In the case of speech disorders and a speech therapist selects special exercises for daily exercise for the development of speech.

Sanatorium stage of treatment of children with cerebral palsy is conducted in sanatoriums of Odessa, Yalta, Truskavets, Saki and the others.

basic in the prevention of cerebral palsy is a thorough examination of the woman before planned pregnancy, regular monitoring in the period of gestation, a healthy way of life of the expectant mother.

Unfortunately, the cure of a child with cerebral palsy is not feasible today.But perhaps as a result of long-term treatment of persistent achieve positive dynamics in the child's condition and to reduce the severity of paralysis.

Result of treatment depends not only on the amount and location of brain damage, but also on the timing of the start of treatment and its duration.The main thing - the early detection of disease.

The goal of therapy is to give the child the possibility of independent movement and social adaptation, career guidance in the safe intelligence in accordance with the possibilities of the patient.Parental love, belief in success, patience and perseverance are no less important.