indicators such as bilirubin, we can see in the form of biochemical analysis of blood.Before you understand why the levels in serum changed, you must understand what is bilirubin, and it is formed.It should be noted that an increase in bilirubin levels - this is just one of the symptoms that indicate the presence of any disease, so only when treating the laboratory data can be normalized. Content
Bilirubin - is one of the bile pigment formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin and enters the bloodstream.Below we look at it as a result of any process it is formed and what forms exist.
a result of injury or at the end of their life cycle, the red blood cells are destroyed in the spleen, are released hemoglobin, which then splits into a molecule of he
In the liver by the action of certain enzymes indirect bilirubin binds to glucuronic acid to form a water-soluble line (bound) bilirubin, which is harmless to the organism.Next is nontoxic bilirubin in bile composition enters the small intestine, where after several transformations converted into stercobilin and excreted in the feces (incidentally, this substance imparts a characteristic dark brown color).A small part of sterkobilinogena (the substance of which is formed in the oxidation and in the gut stercobilin) absorbed back into the blood and excreted in the urine.
metabolism of bilirubin - a complex chemical process that is constantly occurring in our body when it is violated at any stage, and there is change in the level of this substance in the blood serum.Therefore, bilirubin is an important indicator of the work of several body systems.
In a healthy person the concentration of total bilirubin in the blood ranges from 8.5 to 20.5 mmol / l, with the level of indirect (unbound) bilirubin should not normally exceed 17.1 mmol / l and direct (related) - 43 mol / l.
It should be noted that the reliability of the results of a blood test for bilirubin should take in the morning on an empty stomach.
Because the metabolism of the compound there are a few basic steps, raising its level may be due to a violation of one or more of them.There are several main reasons:
Depending on what kind of process is broken, in the blood may be an increase of one of the factions of bilirubin.
accelerated or increased breakdown of red blood cells leads to an increase in the content of heme, and thus the indirect bilirubin in the blood.The liver can not neutralize toxic unbound bilirubin in such large quantities, so there is an increase in the blood level of its indirect fraction.
The main reason for this condition - hemolytic anemia.This is a large group of diseases in which disturbed the life cycle of red blood cells.There are two large groups of hemolytic anemia: acquired and congenital (hereditary).The first group in the majority of cases related to the impact of external factors on the body, resulting in enhanced decay of erythrocytes (some diseases such as malaria, radiation, toxins, drugs, antibodies, etc.).The second group is associated with the presence of congenital genetic defects of erythrocyte membranes (disease Minkowski-Chauffard hereditary stomatotsitoz and elliptocytosis) or in violation of the activity of enzymes in them.
The development of hemolytic anemia may indicate the following symptoms:
in the pathology of the liver (viral hepatitis, alcoholic degeneration, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver) may also be a violation of bilirubin metabolism and, as a consequence, a change in its level in the blood.We should also mention Gilbert's syndrome - a congenital disease, which is caused by a lack of the enzyme glucuronyl transferase, which is directly involved in the metabolism of bilirubin.
in blood test results increased total bilirubin due to the indirect fraction.This indicator is one of the most important in the diagnosis of liver diseases.
patients may disturb the following symptoms:
In diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts (cholelithiasis, tumors, etc.) In the blood may also increase the level of bilirubin.But unlike blood and liver diseases, in this situation increases the amount of direct (bound) bilirubin, liver already neutralized.
In diseases of the biliary system at the patient usually identifies the following symptoms:
Many young mothers are interested, why have their babies in the maternity ward to take blood tests.One such assay is needed for determining the bilirubin level.In 3-4 days after the birth of the concentration of this substance in the blood of a full-term baby is normally up to 256 mmol / l (in premature infants and twins, this figure may be slightly lower - to 171 mmol / l).Such high numbers, of course, frightened young mother, but in most cases there is no reason to worry.
Newborn babies increased bilirubin in the blood at all times.This is due to the fact that a special fetal hemoglobin contained in red blood cells of the fetus in utero, begins to break down after the birth of the child.This leads to increased levels of bilirubin in the blood and the development of neonatal jaundice, which is considered physiological and independently held by the end of 2-3 weeks of age.
But sometimes can develop hemolytic disease of the newborn, for example, in the case of rhesus blood of the mother and child, so babies born to women with Rh-negative, always take blood samples from the umbilical cord.If jaundice in the newborn is expressed very clearly and wary of doctors, you may need a biochemical analysis of blood from a vein.